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Brain anatomy

Brain imaging studies reveal that people with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles , the cavities within the brain that contain cerebral spinal fluid (Green, 2001). This finding is important because larger than normal ventricles suggests that various brain regions are reduced in size, thus implying that schizophrenia is associated with a loss of brain tissue. In addition, many people with schizophrenia display a reduction in gray matter (cell bodies of neurons) in the frontal lobes (Lawrie&Abukmeil, 1998), and many show less frontal lobe activity when performing cognitive tasks (Buchsbaum et al., 1990). The frontal lobes are important in a variety of complex cognitive functions, such as planning and executing behavior, attention, speech, movement, and problem solving. Hence, abnormalities in this region provide merit in explaining why people with schizophrenia experience deficits in these of areas.

Events during pregnancy

Why do people with schizophrenia have these brain abnormalities? A number of environmental factors that could impact normal brain development might be at fault. High rates of obstetric complications in the births of children who later developed schizophrenia have been reported (Cannon, Jones,&Murray, 2002). In addition, people are at an increased risk for developing schizophrenia if their mother was exposed to influenza during the first trimester of pregnancy (Brown et al., 2004). Research has also suggested that a mother’s emotional stress during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. One study reported that the risk of schizophrenia is elevated substantially in offspring whose mothers experienced the death of a relative during the first trimester of pregnancy (Khashan et al., 2008).

Marijuana

Another variable that is linked to schizophrenia is marijuana use. Although a number of reports have shown that individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to use marijuana than are individuals without schizophrenia (Thornicroft, 1990), such investigations cannot determine if marijuana use leads to schizophrenia, or vice versa. However, a number of longitudinal studies have suggested that marijuana use is, in fact, a risk factor for schizophrenia. A classic investigation of over 45,000 Swedish conscripts who were followed up after 15 years found that those individuals who had reported using marijuana at least once by the time of conscription were more than 2 times as likely to develop schizophrenia during the ensuing 15 years than were those who reported never using marijuana; those who had indicated using marijuana 50 or more times were 6 times as likely to develop schizophrenia (Andréasson, Allbeck, Engström,&Rydberg, 1987). More recently, a review of 35 longitudinal studies found a substantially increased risk of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in people who had used marijuana, with the greatest risk in the most frequent users (Moore et al., 2007). Other work has found that marijuana use is associated with an onset of psychotic disorders at an earlier age (Large, Sharma, Compton, Slade,&Nielssen, 2011). Overall, the available evidence seems to indicate that marijuana use plays a causal role in the development of schizophrenia, although it is important to point out that marijuana use is not an essential or sufficient risk factor as not all people with schizophrenia have used marijuana and the majority of marijuana users do not develop schizophrenia (Casadio, Fernandes, Murray,&Di Forti, 2011). One plausible interpretation of the data is that early marijuana use may disrupt normal brain development during important early maturation periods in adolescence (Trezza, Cuomo,&Vanderschuren, 2008). Thus, early marijuana use may set the stage for the development of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, especially among individuals with an established vulnerability (Casadio et al., 2011).

Schizophrenia: early warning signs

Early detection and treatment of conditions such as heart disease and cancer have improved survival rates and quality of life for people who suffer from these conditions. A new approach involves identifying people who show minor symptoms of psychosis, such as unusual thought content, paranoia, odd communication, delusions, problems at school or work, and a decline in social functioning—which are coined prodromal symptoms —and following these individuals over time to determine which of them develop a psychotic disorder and which factors best predict such a disorder. A number of factors have been identified that predict a greater likelihood that prodromal individuals will develop a psychotic disorder: genetic risk (a family history of psychosis), recent deterioration in functioning, high levels of unusual thought content, high levels of suspicion or paranoia, poor social functioning, and a history of substance abuse (Fusar-Poli et al., 2013). Further research will enable a more accurate prediction of those at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia, and thus to whom early intervention efforts should be directed.

Summary

Schizophrenia is a severe disorder characterized by a complete breakdown in one’s ability to function in life; it often requires hospitalization. People with schizophrenia experience hallucinations and delusions, and they have extreme difficulty regulating their emotions and behavior. Thinking is incoherent and disorganized, behavior is extremely bizarre, emotions are flat, and motivation to engage in most basic life activities is lacking. Considerable evidence shows that genetic factors play a central role in schizophrenia; however, adoption studies have highlighted the additional importance of environmental factors. Neurotransmitter and brain abnormalities, which may be linked to environmental factors such as obstetric complications or exposure to influenza during the gestational period, have also been implicated. A promising new area of schizophrenia research involves identifying individuals who show prodromal symptoms and following them over time to determine which factors best predict the development of schizophrenia. Future research may enable us to pinpoint those especially at risk for developing schizophrenia and who may benefit from early intervention.

Questions & Answers

what you think if we create a psychology FB group and than share information among us ? if agree please write your FB user name.
AHMAD Reply
Cedric Grand
Cedric
oulaya bajdadi
TheReal
hii
Vibhu
how's u every body
Vibhu
invite your classmate
AHMAD
and teacher
AHMAD
hey your name
Vibhu
my name is Natasha
Natasha
Ahmad Zia Mirzadi find me on fb
AHMAD
hey Natasha how's u
Vibhu
you from nat
Vibhu
OK Zia I will search u
Vibhu
where are people from?
Adam
usa Arizona state baby
Natasha
Australia here
Adam
I am India nat
Vibhu
baby I m BG talk you later I am in theater
Vibhu
hi Natasha how are you
Enoch
my Fb user name is Enoch Appiagyei Boateng
Enoch
Satish kumar
hey any one use hangout
Vibhu
those are use hangout plc say me
Vibhu
I can't getting this app about 🤷‍♀️
Saleha
Is anyone know the exact cause of mental illnesses like Add, Adhd, Ocd, bipolar etc
Kartikey Reply
mental desorders are caused by many factors
riadh
a chemical imbalance with bipolar which if i remember correctly has somthing to do with OCD as well.....?
jessie
its also has to do with parts of the brain that recieve neurons and some that dont.
Natasha
Natasha...u from which country?
Philip
uSA
Natasha
no i need more explanation
Aminu
ADD, ADHD, bi polar, and OCD. the first 3 are mostly chemical imbalance to the brain. bi polar is a chemical imbalance that has to do with the emotional and creative parts of the brain. its cause from not getting the right amount of something or not enough of something. which is why amphetamines
Natasha
will either make them act more normal and or helps them concentrate. also can make the unleveled level out. desoxyn is methamphentimine hydrochloride its for obese add and adhd
Natasha
may I add that some studies have shown that children who have A.D.H.D were more than likely brought up in single parent family's and Im not a 100% sure of the stat's but believe that some studies have shown as many as 80% of children with A.D.H.D were brought up in a single parent inviroment.
Gavin
And I also remember A.D.H.D in the early days and ideas were put fourth of the cause and one that stood out was spending excessive amounts of time playing computer games as that was still quite anew phenomena at the time.
Gavin
not that anyone mentions that one any more lol.
Gavin
I don't believe there is such a thing as chemical imbalance. More research is needed and it's too easy and simple just to blame certain illnesses on a chemical imbalance. What is chemical imbalance? Maybe we should start there.
David
chemical imbalance is when you either lack a brain chemical such as seritonin, dopamine ex.
Natasha
gavin true to that. our enviroment is a big factor in our chemicals. when were happy because of something our bodies produce more dopamine
Natasha
for example. single parent families are stressful which studies have shown cause more damage then we think or relize including brain chemistry
Natasha
lol duh read a book every now an den u won't bee sow retar'ed. geez some people I swair jus aint gots no cents. ya knaw what eye sayin... lol
Brett
ask reinfield from dracula he suffers from psychotic ideation...lol
Rodney
hey guys
jesse
hey
jesse
olanzepine aka zyprecza works
Rodney
hey morning all
Aminu
what are the psychological effects of being a patient
Gloria Reply
why is the Synapse so important to biopsychologists
Susan Reply
I dnt know
Sam
because its very important
Deepak
Because that's where the exchange of information takes place which causes reactions in us and so biopsychologists need to study the info transmitted in order to study the reaction to explain a mental process/behaviour
Tina
synapse occurs as part of the brain activity. This is where everything seems to happen. Just imagine this synapse is like firing information, your feelings, and stuff
Ysa
so can i assume that if there is action potential in the pre synaptic cell but the neurotransmitter does not diffuse into the post synaptic cell that this would lead to some sort of mental dysfunction?
Susan
Or the opposite, too much neurotransmitter
George
how long does it takes to stabilize your sleeping hours?
Gabby Reply
15 minutes.
Philip
90 mnit +
Khadim
usually 24 hrs for me
Goof
30mins to 1hr
Joshua
😉
Sarfaraj
30 minutes
Bill
why do we get depression
meghna Reply
how to be a neuropsychologist?
mukhtar Reply
wo Kya hota h?
Gayatri
I speak English sorry... If you can translate: I suggest studying anatomy if you are still in high school. You will need a master degree. So about ten years of college.
Jen
Pay close attention to psychology as well. Biology is a must.
Jen
hmm
Gayatri
what are the factors affecting learning
Savoeda Reply
motivation is probably a big factor, but also intellectual ability, knowing from personal experience
Elaina
why do we get depression
meghna
wana jion psychology fb group
AHMAD
yes
Natasha
sure, add me
Adam
write your FB full name
AHMAD
you have it
Adam
low income families, poverty and a poor stimulating environment for children could be caused of learning disabilities or effects.
vincent
yeah sure my fb name ...No more lyf
Vibhu
plcc add me
Vibhu
any advice on psychological statistics ?
Kurt Reply
I'm taking psychological statistics too
psychological statistic is a branch of psychology that deals with research and experimental aspect of psychology. It is an offshoot if experimental psychology, they make use of statistical tools in describing, predicting, analysing and make an inference about data collected in order to
babatunde
what about factors affecting learning
Savoeda
What is the morality in Greek Mythology?
Lianne Reply
Three basic processes involved in the act of remembering are:
kesandu Reply
encoding, storage, retrieval
Elaina
What is psychology
meghna
psychology is the study of the mind
Teza
Psychology is the scientific study of human mental processes and behavior.
Gaurav
it involves studying both; human and animals. It's called subject in the experimental design.
Professor
The three main processes involved in human memory are encoding, storage and recall (retrieval)..
kevin
Do you think there is a stigma associated with mentally ill persons today? Why or why not?
Ali Reply
yes absolutely
Gayatri
and I do believe that stigma is associated with anything when people at large don't know how to deal with anything
Gayatri
Stigma of drowning.
Zaheer
@Gayatri. plz explain. what it means people don't know.
Zaheer
that people are unaware how to respond to a person dealing with any sort of mental illness
Gayatri
so it means mind can't solve problems of mind. am I right ?
Zaheer
yeah sometimes actually it all depends how a person respond to it
Gayatri
and does anxiety falls in that as well
Zaheer
yes
Gayatri
ok thanks.
Zaheer
hi
AHMAD
jion me
AHMAD
on fb
AHMAD
psychology group
AHMAD
find me
AHMAD
psychology group
AHMAD
who started ethics
Segun Reply
relate social psychology to environmental health
Joyce Reply
what can tell me about analytical psychology of Carl G. Jung
babatunde Reply
google it, I don't think anyone has ever studied it properly.
Priyank

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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