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Why does groupthink occur? There are several causes of groupthink, which makes it preventable. When the group is highly cohesive, or has a strong sense of connection, maintaining group harmony may become more important to the group than making sound decisions. If the group leader is directive and makes his opinions known, this may discourage group members from disagreeing with the leader. If the group is isolated from hearing alternative or new viewpoints, groupthink may be more likely. How do you know when groupthink is occurring?

There are several symptoms of groupthink including the following:

  • perceiving the group as invulnerable or invincible—believing it can do no wrong
  • believing the group is morally correct
  • self-censorship by group members, such as withholding information to avoid disrupting the group consensus
  • the quashing of dissenting group members’ opinions
  • the shielding of the group leader from dissenting views
  • perceiving an illusion of unanimity among group members
  • holding stereotypes or negative attitudes toward the out-group or others’ with differing viewpoints (Janis, 1972)

Given the causes and symptoms of groupthink, how can it be avoided? There are several strategies that can improve group decision making including seeking outside opinions, voting in private, having the leader withhold position statements until all group members have voiced their views, conducting research on all viewpoints, weighing the costs and benefits of all options, and developing a contingency plan (Janis, 1972; Mitchell&Eckstein, 2009).

Group polarization

Another phenomenon that occurs within group settings is group polarization. Group polarization (Teger&Pruitt, 1967) is the strengthening of an original group attitude after the discussion of views within a group. That is, if a group initially favors a viewpoint, after discussion the group consensus is likely a stronger endorsement of the viewpoint. Conversely, if the group was initially opposed to a viewpoint, group discussion would likely lead to stronger opposition. Group polarization explains many actions taken by groups that would not be undertaken by individuals. Group polarization can be observed at political conventions, when platforms of the party are supported by individuals who, when not in a group, would decline to support them. A more everyday example is a group’s discussion of how attractive someone is. Does your opinion change if you find someone attractive, but your friends do not agree? If your friends vociferously agree, might you then find this person even more attractive?

Social facilitation

Not all intergroup interactions lead to the negative outcomes we have described. Sometimes being in a group situation can improve performance. Social facilitation occurs when an individual performs better when an audience is watching than when the individual performs the behavior alone. This typically occurs when people are performing a task for which they are skilled. Can you think of an example in which having an audience could improve performance? One common example is sports. Skilled basketball players will be more likely to make a free throw basket when surrounded by a cheering audience than when playing alone in the gym ( [link] ). However, there are instances when even skilled athletes can have difficulty under pressure. For example, if an athlete is less skilled or nervous about making a free throw, having an audience may actually hinder rather than help. In sum, social facilitation is likely to occur for easy tasks, or tasks at which we are skilled, but worse performance may occur when performing in front of others, depending on the task.

Questions & Answers

hypnosis is an artificially induced state in which suppressed memories and feelings are revealed....
Milky Reply
Debate question: the social engineering is the dark side of the psychology? what do you guys think
Josue Reply
What was social gathering like in ancient times?
Sonic Reply
no
abdul
how do i know if i have a personality disorder? and no, i dont have insurance
Eduardo Reply
i can't see ur whole line
Neetu Reply
tap 'more" to see the whole paragraph
Milky
how to join conversation
Neetu Reply
A square is given at the end ,,Tap the Square and start Conversation....
Milky
what is the difference between place theory and time theory
Neetu Reply
you
abdul
place theory is a theory of hearing that sates that our perception of sound depends upon from where each component frequency produces vibration...
Milky
place theory is when sound wave of different frequency stimulate different area of the cochlea (inner)
Zainab
what is saturation?
Neetu Reply
unable To hold or contain any more e.g The syrup is saturated you can't add further sugar to it...
Milky
what is Conscious ,Subconscious and Unconscious?
Milky
conscious is the state of being aware of mental activities while unconscious is d opposite
Zainab
what is Biopsychology
Shalomkegeta Reply
?
tom
yes
Shalomkegeta
hey
N_Young
I'm so sorry I'm late I've been really busy. okay let's get started what are you all having trouble with in this class
Reyna
Study of the body, how it works and how why...?
tom
as far I know , psychobiology or biopsychology is the study of the behavior using biological basis... slightly different from neuroscience... remark: I'm not a professional, its just my opinion according my studies
Josue
Hey, i just got transferred to psychology and i am a bit lost because i resumed late. i need help on how to catch up and also how i do i read and understand and also pass my exam. Exam is in 45 days.
Venturah
hey. can you tell more about psychology studies? and math in psychology?
Gabriel
hi
Mercy
hello
Lieutenant
Hello Mercy
Syed
is there anyone?
Lieutenant
hi
James
hi!! How are?
Milky
Fine
Syed
anyone?
Lieutenant
anyonnne
Lieutenant
lots of good people here are...
Milky
yes
Syed
its science
abdul
it's Science) what this suppose to mean?
Milky
its meaning also all covered
abdul
okay.......
Milky
IS THIS A CHAT ROOM FOR ONLINE CONSULTING
Shadow
For everything relating to psychology I think. Is it?
Daniela
Related*
Daniela
yes
abdul
i need finance
abdul
Abdul Latheff people are here to learn sth from each other ,,,Its like learning Institution Okay please Behave like an educated man...
Milky
I gave my opinion yesterday... I don't know if it helped
Josue
my definition about biopsychology...
Josue
what is mind?
Milky Reply
Human body is an organisation which is owned by you. Mind is CEO of that organisation which is responsible for running all the affairs as per your desire and directive.
SS
Mind is how you control it
SS
OK,Thanks for sharing your ideas...
Milky
Mind is divided into three elements what are these three?
Milky
Conscious, unconscious and sub conscious
tom
will define it ,Tom?
Milky
@ Tom Thornton, I agree with conscious and subconscious as elements of mind, but unconscious is a state of brain as an organ, where mind has no power over it, while conscious and subconscious are both controlled by it. excuse me if I am wrong.
Bora
Conscious is the everyday stuff like brushing your teeth, getting dressed, knowing how to do things without needing to be shown
tom
Unconscious is the stuff you don't know yet, the unknown side of the brain
tom
Subconscious is the stuff you know but don't know you know
tom
Hey I'm not knocking it, this is just my input wrong or right, it's just as I understand it?
tom
@ bora brigjaj how very interesting approach. Where or how did you get it? Any book or article you can recommend to dig more into it?
Daniela
okay !!! thanks Tom for sharing your ideas with your little brother....
Milky
according with the neuroscience the unconscious is the part which ocurr automatically (like brushing our teeth -we don't pay attention to every little movement, we just do it-) its like an automatic pilot. on the other side the conscious is when we are aware about the facts (e.g., we are going to..
Josue
thanks Josue.....
Milky
haha Subconscious remains .....
Milky
...learn how to drive, we are paying attention to every detail..the first times is difficult, but when we practice the unconscious take charge and afterwards we do it automatically). there are another definition about this topics (the definition given by Sigmund Freud , I think there is no longer...
Josue
...used, don't know for sure) in these days there are a lot of controversy in the psychology about this... I prefer the neuroscience definition... what do you guys think (I have a lot of literature about that..if you guys want). give me your feedback please ;)
Josue
jaja you're right milky... it remains
Josue
sending lot of prayers to my Elder Brother who shares their invaluable ideas with their little brothers ,so that can understand and relate examples from every day life...
Milky
It will be honour for U Josue to share your ideas with persons who don't really know and because of u and persons like u in this group they will learn sth.. Great achievement Brothers😃😎
Milky
in the new age studies the term unconscious is used (no longer subconscious) , on older ages (Freud, there are three definitions)
Josue
Just a final words: I think milky with this question have opened a door...in the new age studies the mind no longer exists (we all know the history of this duality opened by René Descartes), nowadays the neuroscience is giving a lot of scientific information
Josue
the mind is just an illusion (there is no ghost or something related, they stated there is no mind ..just processes on the brain. there is no duality) ...then what happen with psychology?
Josue
Hhmmm .....Josue have u done any course in psychology ,,,I mean whats your educational background bro?
Milky
if there is no mind..just the brain and inner workings , the psychology is redundant? ... perhaps the answer is no, the psychology and the neuroscience can coexist..even be complementary fields, there is a lot of reasons but I don't want to bore everyone... but this is a exceptional question...
Josue
okay!!! got the idea....Bro Josue
Milky
I am studying psychology at the university, but a lot of my knowledge I am doing it by my own research... my principal background is the body language.. afterwards I began to study the branches of the body language... and here I am..
Josue
that's Good and we are lucky to have a Psychologist around us😃😃
Milky
het
gloria
wat is psychology
gloria
psychology is relationship between mental processed and it's effects on behaviour...
Milky
* Processes
Milky
what are the methods of psychology
gloria
Gloria there are a lot of methods here, example: case studies, interviews, observational study...and the list keep going on...I am not really sure if this was the answer you were looking for..
Josue
there are experimental methods i.e lab experiments and Non Experimental methods as Josue Defined earlier...
Milky
Gloria!!!! Are u getting?
Milky
good Night ,,,,,Guys ,,, sweet dreams😴😴
Milky
same to u
gloria
sweet REM-NREM sleep jajaja
Josue
sorry Rosue but I cant Get the meaning of JaJa ...OOhh can u speak Spanish also?
Milky
Si exactamente
Josue
Bueno ,,,Josue
Milky
guys me I just understand English plz wants is this language
gloria
Gloria you from Kenya ?
samuel
no Zambia kitwe
gloria
n
abdul
wat do u mean I understand English and bemba
gloria
Gloria inbox me
samuel
okay Gloria will talk in English Onward in conversation....
Milky
me I want to know more about English
aimie
what is understanding self mean
aimie
to gain something personal to fulfill personal desire
Sarah
what is betrayal then
Sarah
how do you distinguish between being mean and being honest
Sarah
Hi my friends.. I think this is a psychology forum? or can we ask about another topics? I also study mathematics, pharmaceutical chemistry, hypnosis, persuasion, social engineering... we surely have a great time..
Josue
being honest is totally different from being mean. being honest may express being mean. but being mean may use the methods of ditching, flattering, saying that m being honest and many others.
Deepak
ohk...
pooja
Pooja how are you?
James
hi.
Lima
hi
Jayson
Am OK and you
Lima
hi
Roushan
hii
sadaf
anyone can tell about hypnosis
Roushan
I have played with a few parts of sleep hypnosis. It's very complex until you get the hang of it.
Sarah
can you tell about it
Roushan
@ Gloria they are naturalistic observation case study survey correlational study
Zainab
what is the psychology-specific word for a disorder that has one or more additional disorders attached to it? for example: anorexia nervosa is typically accompanied with anxiety, depression, personality disorders, etc. I know their is a specific word that describes the multitude of disorders.
Eduardo Reply
Comorbidity? ***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comorbidity
Angel
nooo 😭 it's close though. thanks :) I remember hearing it in an article last year and it's been killing me since
Eduardo
actually, it is the exact word now that i saw the exact meaning on google 😁😁😁 thank you so much
Eduardo
I would say it is "syndrome" and it is defined as a number of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated to each other. I know that depression is an illness rather that has many signs and symptoms.
Bora
Some disorders are comorbid with certain Conditions... Not necessarily a syndrome, just comorbidity
George
comorbid condition
Kayla
what does empirical mean
James Reply
when some is based on experiment and observation
Zainab
psychology or psychological?
Onyedikachi Reply
what do you wanna know?
hamna
what does empirical mean
James
not to be that person but it took me about 2 seconds to pull up the google definition, which is "based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic."
Maddy
what is psychological
Leo Reply
What is Motivation and types of motivation ? (5 marks)
Neha Reply
theories about motivation ?( in more simpler way but about 10marks)
Neha
motivation is the emotional drive that influence an organism to do an activity be it positive or negative . it could be an inner drive (intrinsic) or an external drive which is known as extrinsic drive , for example many people do an activity due to the reward they will benefit.
HARRISON

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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