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While people are often unaware of their sleep apnea, they are keenly aware of some of the adverse consequences of insufficient sleep. Consider a patient who believed that as a result of his sleep apnea he “had three car accidents in six weeks. They were ALL my fault. Two of them I didn’t even know I was involved in until afterwards” (Henry&Rosenthal, 2013, p. 52). It is not uncommon for people suffering from undiagnosed or untreated sleep apnea to fear that their careers will be affected by the lack of sleep, illustrated by this statement from another patient, “I’m in a job where there’s a premium on being mentally alert. I was really sleepy… and having trouble concentrating…. It was getting to the point where it was kind of scary” (Henry&Rosenthal, 2013, p. 52).

There are two types of sleep apnea: obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when an individual’s airway becomes blocked during sleep, and air is prevented from entering the lungs. In central sleep apnea    , disruption in signals sent from the brain that regulate breathing cause periods of interrupted breathing (White, 2005).

One of the most common treatments for sleep apnea involves the use of a special device during sleep. A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)    device includes a mask that fits over the sleeper’s nose and mouth, which is connected to a pump that pumps air into the person’s airways, forcing them to remain open, as shown in [link] . Some newer CPAP masks are smaller and cover only the nose. This treatment option has proven to be effective for people suffering from mild to severe cases of sleep apnea (McDaid et al., 2009). However, alternative treatment options are being explored because consistent compliance by users of CPAP devices is a problem. Recently, a new EPAP (expiratory positive air pressure) device has shown promise in double-blind trials as one such alternative (Berry, Kryger,&Massie, 2011).

Photograph A shows a CPAP device.  Photograph B shows a clear full face CPAP mask attached to a mannequin's head with straps.
(a) A typical CPAP device used in the treatment of sleep apnea is (b) affixed to the head with straps, and a mask that covers the nose and mouth.

Sids

In sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)    an infant stops breathing during sleep and dies. Infants younger than 12 months appear to be at the highest risk for SIDS, and boys have a greater risk than girls. A number of risk factors have been associated with SIDS including premature birth, smoking within the home, and hyperthermia. There may also be differences in both brain structure and function in infants that die from SIDS (Berkowitz, 2012; Mage&Donner, 2006; Thach, 2005).

The substantial amount of research on SIDS has led to a number of recommendations to parents to protect their children ( [link] ). For one, research suggests that infants should be placed on their backs when put down to sleep, and their cribs should not contain any items which pose suffocation threats, such as blankets, pillows or padded crib bumpers (cushions that cover the bars of a crib). Infants should not have caps placed on their heads when put down to sleep in order to prevent overheating, and people in the child’s household should abstain from smoking in the home. Recommendations like these have helped to decrease the number of infant deaths from SIDS in recent years (Mitchell, 2009; Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, 2011).

Questions & Answers

what is borderline personality?
Vicki Reply
"instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood, as well as impulsivity; key features include intolerance of being alone and fear of abandonment, unstable relationships, unpredictable behavior and moods, and intense and inappropriate anger"
sebastian
intrapersonal*
Caden
because it is complex.
Decentrillonaire Reply
ego
Jinson
in*
Caden
why does reminiscence make me want to die? regardless of how positive or negative the memory is, it makes me feel confined and ready to die.
Eduardo Reply
the pain is inevitable, I don't know the reason for you don't want to die, but here is a question, what will you get if you die, it's confusing but what will you gain from death like revenge or pain free, looks like you would give pain for people you loved you, so instead of thinking of dying, try
john
Jesus is the way, the truth and the life.
King
Because it hurts so much. But death isn't the answer. We have to learn to grow through our pain. Even years of it. Endure the pain and you will grow above it! One day it won't hurt the way it does now. And yes Jesus is our friend..he wants to help you through it.
Laura
Always focous on your present and forget your future. The remote of our life and death is with Almighty God. Belive in God, will make your life successfull.
Uzair
past*
Uzair
And never worried for your future. Its always fixed. But only only can change it.
Uzair
Dua *
Uzair
thank you guys. ill take it all into consideration :)
Eduardo
Cheaters Suck
PJ
how can you judge a person who is bipolar?
Reynald Reply
Judge or diagnose?
Jason
Judging is done based on a person's feeling of superiority and moral high ground. This is generally just arrogance and lack of understanding. Unless you try to get an idea of what living with bi-polar personality disorder really is, and their struggle, you are judging, not diagnosing, in ignorance.
Jason
diagnose.
Decentrillonaire
***brainblogger.com/2008/05/27/the-bipolar-trend/
Jason
I agree with Jason.
Laura
hii i have a question could anybody send me some PDF files on the psychology?
Sam Reply
difference between mania and hypomania
Ankita Reply
Hypomania is a less severe form of mania. It actually may feel pretty good because your mood is up and you have more energy than usual, but it's not out of control. For someone with bipolar disorder, hypomania can evolve into mania. Or it can switch to serious depressio
anargha
who is from Delhi?
Sam
idk
anargha
where are you from?
Sam
i am from Delhi
Nikhil
helo
Uzair
ok
Sam
what are you doing in studies
Sam
BA in Psychology
Nikhil
Mania is a severe episode that may last for a week or more. A person may feel uncontrollably elated and very high in energy. These symptoms interfere with daily life, and in severe cases, a person may need to go to the hospital.
john
Hypomania is an episode that lasts for a few days. People may feel very good and function well. Family or friends may notice mood or activity changes, while the person with the hypomania may not.
john
Mania and hypomania are most often related to bipolar disorder. They can also occur as part of other mood disorders, such as schizoaffective disorder.
john
cock cock cock cook cock cock Ock cock cock. cock cock cock penis penis dick dick penis cock?
Riv Reply
Boy, looks like you have issue
gor
indeed
john
Hi
Albino
Hi
MentalHealth
taretts....lol or could suffer from pendejositus. that's spanglish for dumbasitus!
Jo
sensation such example
Fateha Reply
what is sensation and example
Fateha
Sensation is the process that allows our brains to take in information via our five senses, which can then be experienced and interpreted by the brain. Sensation occurs thanks to our five sensory systems: vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch.
john
For example, when touched by a soft feather, mechanoreceptors, which are sensory receptors in the skin register that the skin has been touched. That sensory information is then turned into neural information through a process called transduction. Next, the neural information travels down neural p
john
pathways to the appropriate part of the brain, wherein the sensations are perceived as the touch of a feather.
john
thanks john
Fateha
always a pleasure
john
five minutes to rest the best way to relief our stress.
Rhollee
I believe in the whole brain we need not think or even remember what events may have happened.I do think memories will always be stored like to think of the whole brain and heart.Guess that's another surgery..
Bart Reply
I think what has occurred in our life also plays a role in our intellect.
Misty
Agreed.
Laura
the brain is a powerful tool for humans to handle, if you have full access to the brain, you can control pain or anything other emotions, for instance according to my research you can get pain when ever you want.
john
I agree with John full control of our brain we can be able to get thru anything ...
Sonia
@john you mean using our memory?
Cherrie
painful memories, yeah you can control them too, @cherrie depression is bunch of chemicals pain is too with pain receptors and motor nerves
john
wawoo amazing
Khadim
is that sarcasm @khadim
john
thank you @sonia
john
if you want peace of mind.. simply don't fight with your thoughts!
omar
that's what I said brain controls everything, if we control the brain and thought process, things will be simplified, hell it will easy peasy life
john
hmmm
omar
why is learning important
Elkanah Reply
you actually want an answer for this? :0
Sohaib
learning is important because without learning you wouldn't even be able to have asked that question, among a plethora of other reasons my friend.
iWasHacked
In case that wasn't a joke.
iWasHacked
do you think that the moon is holo as when nasa made any heavy impact on it's surface it is recorded that I was shook for a while.
Raman
Your been what? Behavior is not what you know it's how you behave yourself.. Learning is important to me as we learn more is gained in life's work.
Bart
Bart Gross that didnt even make sense dude.
iWasHacked
Ramen Prasad that I don't think has any correlation to the question.
iWasHacked
The fact that the President saw or not can be a fear although with children and events the president had on his mind can not be assertataind I'm in the thinking he knew of a eye event seeing than remembering I'd have to disagree..
Bart
I also disagree that the whole brain theory it's environment, DNA I believe that in some way the Memory travels through sensors nerve cells. thanks
Bart
Bart. you must be commenting on the wrong section...
iWasHacked
explain inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha Reply
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
you want intelligence definition and the nature of it and their characteristics
john
a teacher needs to understand and explain the behavior and activities of a learner both in class room and outside the classroom.establish how this can be achieved
Doris Reply
how can a teacher understand the behaviour change of a students in class room
Doris
observation and conservation of treasured items
Crystal
how can a teacher observer the learners
Doris
Well I know a teacher who observes the overall mood of some of her students expecially ones who tend to yell at people who annoy them. She knows the steps to one of them about to go off and send the person outside for a chat (the person annoying them or the person about to go off).
another point please, How can a teacher observe the learners behavior in class
Doris
Just that observing patterns of behaviour
"observation and conservation of treasured items" All the way. Love it.
PJ
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?
Nikhil Reply
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?q
Nikhil
I can't answer that. I barely made it through statistiçs
Karen
i forgot to add, its Social Psychology Research
Nikhil
Depends on whether it's clinical OR a naturalistic research
Wayne
your research has to be recognized and approved by your national psychiatric association i.e American Psyc Association and it has to be pier reviewed by a current professional in your field so maybe your professor or from a licensed psychiatric contractor.
Eduardo
When do we say one is mad?
Man
can I listen to start with
Karen Reply
I was here before but got lost
Karen
hello
Sheik
hi
California
hiiiii all
Khadim
I wanna be a young psychologist....
Sheik
Define perception of human nature and its significance
Aslam Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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