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Cognitive therapy was developed by psychiatrist Aaron Beck in the 1960s. His initial focus was on depression and how a client’s self-defeating attitude served to maintain a depression despite positive factors in her life (Beck, Rush, Shaw,&Emery, 1979) ( [link] ). Through questioning, a cognitive therapist can help a client recognize dysfunctional ideas, challenge catastrophizing thoughts about themselves and their situations, and find a more positive way to view things (Beck, 2011).

This graphic depicts two three-box flowcharts showing reactions to failing a test. The first flowchart flows from “Failed test” to “Internal beliefs: I’m worthless and stupid” to “Depression.” The second flowchart flows from “Failed test” to “Internal beliefs: I’m smart, but I didn’t study for this test. I can do better.” to “No depression.”
Your emotional reactions are the result of your thoughts about the situation rather than the situation itself. For instance, if you consistently interpret events and emotions around the themes of loss and defeat, then you are likely to be depressed. Through therapy, you can learn more logical ways to interpret situations.

Psychotherapy: cognitive-behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapists focus much more on present issues than on a patient’s childhood or past, as in other forms of psychotherapy. One of the first forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy was rational emotive therapy (RET)    , which was founded by Albert Ellis and grew out of his dislike of Freudian psychoanalysis (Daniel, n.d.). Behaviorists such as Joseph Wolpe also influenced Ellis’s therapeutic approach (National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists, 2009).

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) helps clients examine how their thoughts affect their behavior. It aims to change cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors. In essence, this approach is designed to change the way people think as well as how they act. It is similar to cognitive therapy in that CBT attempts to make individuals aware of their irrational and negative thoughts and helps people replace them with new, more positive ways of thinking. It is also similar to behavior therapies in that CBT teaches people how to practice and engage in more positive and healthy approaches to daily situations. In total, hundreds of studies have shown the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of numerous psychological disorders such as depression, PTSD, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse (Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, n.d.). For example, CBT has been found to be effective in decreasing levels of hopelessness and suicidal thoughts in previously suicidal teenagers (Alavi, Sharifi, Ghanizadeh,&Dehbozorgi, 2013). Cognitive-behavioral therapy has also been effective in reducing PTSD in specific populations, such as transit workers (Lowinger&Rombom, 2012).

Cognitive-behavioral therapy aims to change cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors using techniques like the ABC model. With this model, there is an A ction (sometimes called an activating event), the B elief about the event, and the C onsequences of this belief. Let’s say, Jon and Joe both go to a party. Jon and Joe each have met a young woman at the party: Jon is talking with Megan most of the party, and Joe is talking with Amanda. At the end of the party, Jon asks Megan for her phone number and Joe asks Amanda. Megan tells Jon she would rather not give him her number, and Amanda tells Joe the same thing. Both Jon and Joe are surprised, as they thought things were going well. What can Jon and Joe tell themselves about why the women were not interested? Let’s say Jon tells himself he is a loser, or is ugly, or “has no game.” Jon then gets depressed and decides not to go to another party, which starts a cycle that keeps him depressed. Joe tells himself that he had bad breath, goes out and buys a new toothbrush, goes to another party, and meets someone new.

Questions & Answers

explain inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha Reply
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
a teacher needs to understand and explain the behavior and activities of a learner both in class room and outside the classroom.establish how this can be achieved
Doris Reply
how can a teacher understand the behaviour change of a students in class room
Doris
observation and conservation of treasured items
Crystal
how can a teacher observer the learners
Doris
Well I know a teacher who observes the overall mood of some of her students expecially ones who tend to yell at people who annoy them. She knows the steps to one of them about to go off and send the person outside for a chat (the person annoying them or the person about to go off).
another point please, How can a teacher observe the learners behavior in class
Doris
Just that observing patterns of behaviour
"observation and conservation of treasured items" All the way. Love it.
PJ
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?
Nikhil Reply
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?q
Nikhil
I can't answer that. I barely made it through statistiçs
Karen
i forgot to add, its Social Psychology Research
Nikhil
Depends on whether it's clinical OR a naturalistic research
Wayne
can I listen to start with
Karen Reply
I was here before but got lost
Karen
hello
Sheik
hi
California
hiiiii all
Khadim
I wanna be a young psychologist....
Sheik
Define perception of human nature and its significance
Aslam Reply
Psychology is important for different programs to study because of its ability to build students critical thinking and by so doing, improve their ability to sieve information, thereby improving overall learning outcomes
Vincent Reply
I have a question about sex addiction how can you tell someone would have sex with anything like child man woman old young even an animal I have a feeling the guy I'm with is someone that could do anything because he has no self control and he is a narcissist that also has a addition to meth..
Alexis Reply
How did you get to meet this guy
Wayne
hello may i ask How long have you been seeing this guy and what kind of signs were givin to come to this conclusion,? along with what you've shared on top here?
Jo
Facebook but we had the same friends but never met before but have been together for 5 years and its been hell I now have PTSD and now no intrest in doing what I love because he puts me down for doing so or makes me feel stupid for feeling the way I do about things
Alexis
been together for 5 years things were good at first he was really nice if I needed something he made sure to get it but once I moved I with him he started calling me names but once we got our own place he got abusive and pretty much had me as a prisoner in my own home
Alexis
also when he gets high he gets very turned on to the point he would masturbate several times a day only time we would have sex is if I was asleep or we would fight to the point of abusing each other then he would want to have sex but he also seemed to be very weird around kids
Alexis
but if sober he wanted nothing to do with him he would actually make me take my brother to my mother's room and not let him come out and play with his toys also I had my son asleep in his room with the TV and night light on seth said he was going to get a shower well the water was on I thought he
Alexis
it sounds like this guys is someone who can be very dangerous if under the influence. I highly recommend getting yourself and children away from him. He may seem like a nice guy but in my limited experience its better to play it safe not only for your own safety but especially for the children.
April
you gotta leave the relationship.. it sounds like it won't end so well and the fact that he's using meth; that alone is a very huge red flag
GL
I agree with GL Rocketeer
April
yes I do also but I want to think it's just the drugs but he still is very one sided and not caring of others feelings
Alexis
one thing I could share with u from individuals ive spoken wit is that a person who smokes or especially runs it becomes extremely "turned on" and or to the point were they'll masturbate or seek outside their relationship to satisfy their wants or needs. so honestly i dont think its a bad I idea...
Jo
fr them in this situation out of his sight,out of his mind!-
Jo
so yea id agree, pick up and flee! Good luck in your situation and may God protect u and yours during this time!
Jo
thanks you guys I've asked for advice from family but no one actually listened to me and just pushed it aside
Alexis
I also agree wit miss april, about methin around wit this guy, and already abused u already kno wat ones capable of. theroriticly if one day he looses his sack or been up for few days to were sleep deprivation begins to alter his jugment and emotions , possibilitys Are high, and could hurt someone
Jo
it is better to make a plan, get everything ready. Then make your move, if it is drug out over time and this guy still has access to you. He will try to convince you he will change and stop. He will agree with everything you say to make you believe him. it will be lies.
Admin
gestalt theory of learning with example sultan
Rohit
A friend of mine experiences homicidal thoughts. She doesn't believe she would act upon it, but it definitely happens more than the average person (which, most people at least in one point in their lives experience homicidal thoughts). She is a diagnosed sociopath.
Corrupt Reply
Mostly I feel she would need a hobby or a purpose in life.. Finding determination to achieve something is tough for some people already, in your friend's condition it's even more challenging
Samrat
Friends and family are important support system.. She also has to reach out for help
Samrat
how can you calm yourself when in distress.. i cant simply calm my nerves with breathing.. negative result
Nicki Reply
Depending on the severity of said distress it depends on how extensive your feelings of anxiety & panic are. So the most universally applicable "safe method", would be to attempt to change subjects, as in doing something possibly unrelated to keep busy mentally
Miguel
If that's not sufficient enough aside from the plethora of other alternatives I'm sure you've probably searched online. I'd like to understand a little better how "difficult" things become? Hyperventilating? Feeling like a heartattack? Or just overwhelming apprehension, worry, etc?
Miguel
what kind of distress? And how do you get a negative result from breathing?
iWasHacked
i feel worry, hyperventilating.. i cant control my breathing sometimes.. my bad past shows up, then i stupidly doubting myself a lot.. cant even look ppl in the eye n lock myself in my room. i try the breathing methods on google but it doesn't work, maybe i need someone to help me. such a pussy
Nicki
how the hell did this conversation get on my messages
mauReeN
meesages
mauReeN
idk
Nicki
I'm still trying to figure out what this is exactly.
Jonah
I have problems with hyperventilating as well so I can understand, so usually when I'm having an episode like that I concentrate intently on one object (ex. the floor, its design, the details in it, how it feels under my hands, etc).
iWasHacked
The Last time I had an episode it got intense enough where my extremites went numb and tingly and I couldnt see straight(probably close to fainting) with an intense pressure in my head and I had focused on the way the floor felt under my hands(stimulation helps).
iWasHacked
even though I couldnt really feel much but I had calmed down. Another thing that could possibly help is reciting over and over in your head if you are able to "I'm ok, just calm down,everything is fine you are going to be ok, you are safe breathe in and then out" this is usally what i do on the mild
iWasHacked
cases when I am just starting but when the hyperventilating gets intense freaking out from the loss of feeling is i think normal but its important to try and stay calm and try some stimulation for distraction. Other times my mother has helped to calm me down a lot, she usually was the one to help me
iWasHacked
so maybe ask for somebody to talk to you in that situation to distract your mind. Another thing I find is its best to sit down on your knees on the floor because if you faint you dont want to hit your head and usually when hyperventilating I surely cannot stand up straight so its just easier
iWasHacked
and you'll have one less thing to worry about in that situation. I really hope one of these can help you, its a very stressful situation and I really hope you can find some peace. Just remember that because something works for somebody else does not mean it will work for you so don't get upset if
iWasHacked
these dont help you just keep looking for something that works for you. You could also try some meditation outside of your episodes and maybe incorporate the meditation when you hyperventilate? Good luck!💛
iWasHacked
sorry for so many comments it wouldnt let me put it all in one comment lmao. Hope it helps.
iWasHacked
12345
Graced
I feel anticipating the situation and knowing that it could've been worse, can calm you down.. you basically need to be okay with whatever life throws at you and think ahead
Samrat
how do you get someone to stop smoking marijuana
Eduardo Reply
you dont ..They need to want it for them self no one can make anything they don't want..They need to learn to have self control to live with out it..
Barrera
anyone**
Barrera
I lost 32 lbs in 6 weeks because all I could do was dry heave. Don't judge someone when you know nothing about them or their struggles
Tara
first you need to pinpoint why they are using it. There may be a health motive behind it.. if so marijuana is the most natural form of any pain relief available. It has several health benefits depending on the user and purposes.
Even
I get someone from smoking marijuana when I look at the bad side of it
austin
you know guys marijuana is a med but all meds will be bad if youll use it exessively
facts
Anxiety is why I stopped
Gianni
First question is. Why are you wanting to get somebody to quit? It could be purely their choice even knowing the side affects and if that's so you cant really do anything. Last, how long has this person been smoking and why is he or she smoking?
iWasHacked
What are some usual cognitive behavioral therapy routines for people dealing with addiction? More specifically, a case of a 21 y.o man with a comorbidity of marijuana addiction, addiction to sexual fantasy & pleasure, and an addiction to food. If you guys could help, I would appreciate it :)
Eduardo Reply
what does marijuana do in the body of a person?
austin
What's the best way to keep ur cool when in a relationship, when u have a short temper for people playing dumb, insulting your intelligence as if they really think u r believing the crap there telling u? I mean its soooo aggravating for someone like me not to have broke him in half already but I want to do all I can to help him cuz I love him and I'm learning all I can to help us both
Todd Reply
Pepole need to want change on there own, by u keep helping you are becoming an enabler.. Live by example and others will fallow..
Barrera
i'd say the relationship isn't healthy. if he is aware that he is hurting you by insulting you, than he does it to assert power. I'd say a healthy relationship needs to have an equal say in everything. In relationships, you often have to rely on the other. if he isnt there, take it as a sign.
Eduardo
you sho right Eduardo, anger can be controlled, it takes patience, strong mind and instantaneous thinking to, but from experience i believe narcacissm could be a factor! they tend to deny the fact of recognizing their faults to avoid the shame label, and so on...
Jo
He hits me starts fights then wonders why I stay away from h im.Right now I have no where be to go.I starting to get physically ill from the stress.Plus he never takes me anywhere and I left her by myself all the time.I never see people unless it's his friends.I know it's not good for me.I am alon
Vicki
For me How do I cope find inner peace.I cry all the time.
Vicki
Hello everyone.
Jonah
To find inner peace seek God 100% believe and you will never be the same again like crying all the time because that's what the devil wants from you and don't stuck up like just cry, be depressed it's just an example move forward not reverse and think & do with all your might the things that could
mary
possibly go right if you just conquer it with a burning desire, just dont stay stuck up explore there's so much things that u need to unravel
mary
Hello too.
mary
Hi, Todd I just want to share this to you. You see love is a two-way you give and receive its never a one-way road if you get what I mean. I know its hard for you but your significant other should understand you, it's not always him/her that needs to lend a caring, support, understanding. Your not
mary
dumb neither your significant other so both of you should talk about it and tell him/her what you've been through in the relationship. Don't hate on me Todd I'm just giving my opinion.
mary
What do you think the kind of relationship you have? All they tell you is indeed true and has point but are you clear with your relationship?
Dark
All he/she wants is to feel some importance so give him the importance he is grieving for and always when your in a conversation talk about his point of view and encourage him to talk about himself more.
Abdirahman
When you disagree something with him don't oppose him just say you maybe correct but this what I thought and then say your opinion. Just remember that you cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him to find it within himself. Be wiser than other people if you can; but do not tell them so.
Abdirahman
If they truly love you they will never hurt you. when you love someone you show you love them, not with words but with actions. show you they care, that you are important to them. From experience I have learnt that words mean nothing. you love someone, prove it
Jessamine
Just A fact me and Dark the way we said it or type in this chat Todd is not rude or try to be offensive. Just to clear things out.
mary
@Jo exactly! it's almost textbook. The longer he continues to get his ego fed, he'll continue to disrespect her. either he needs a therapist or someone to teach him that he isn't that important.
Eduardo
You know guys, LOVE is a very big thing to deal with. It's a thing that confuses everybody, a great topic for argument. I think the best way to deal with your problem is to know yourself.We can't keep on advising you like you should do this and that or believe this or that or follow this or that.
Dark
We perceive things differently, it's all clear. I'm not offending anyone in here. I'm sorry for my words. That's just how things go with my head. I'm not even good in love.
Dark
I agree. Short tempered people are evey where. I'm Short-tempered. People change when they want to. So, it could me a minute - days to years and they'll either change, or not. but the conclusion comes down to you both. Not how anyone ones judging the relationship.
Gianni
I can't see the conversations
Husna Reply
i think its delete randomly
Uzair
yes probably
nazranna
hi
Fyke
hey
nazranna
ahoy wah gwaan
Tumo
Helloo everybody!
Jo
Hey☺
vidisha
Helo
Anna
hello
aravinth
Any opinions about narcasissts?
Jo
I cant see the conversations
motherearth Reply
?
Sma
!
Uzair
put some glasses
riadh
?
Sma
open your eyes wide
Nicki
Guys can you give any idea what are the current challenges in educational psychology
Siena
how do you use reverse psychology?
DubZeus Reply
dont use it
Eduardo
when dealing with kids,or young adolescent. Attempting to maybe alter the way they either percieve or feel about themselves, situation,person, ...
Jo
It is not the best method to use expecially in certain situations. It doesn't work on everyone and I know some cases where it has led to rifts.
im in accord,i guess it would depend on the situation and the way it's being expressed...opinion?
Jo
I 100% agree. I know cases where it has worked and cases where it has not. You need to analyse the situation before trying it out but once again it works on some people and not on others.
can someone please answer the proposed question
King
Hello, can I ask what are the current issues in educational psychology?
Siena
Oh sorry
Siena
Hi
Uzair

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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