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What can young infants see, hear, and smell? Newborn infants’ sensory abilities are significant, but their senses are not yet fully developed. Many of a newborn’s innate preferences facilitate interaction with caregivers and other humans. Although vision is their least developed sense, newborns already show a preference for faces. Babies who are just a few days old also prefer human voices, they will listen to voices longer than sounds that do not involve speech (Vouloumanos&Werker, 2004), and they seem to prefer their mother’s voice over a stranger’s voice (Mills&Melhuish, 1974). In an interesting experiment, 3-week-old babies were given pacifiers that played a recording of the infant’s mother’s voice and of a stranger’s voice. When the infants heard their mother’s voice, they sucked more strongly at the pacifier (Mills&Melhuish, 1974). Newborns also have a strong sense of smell. For instance, newborn babies can distinguish the smell of their own mother from that of others. In a study by MacFarlane (1978), 1-week-old babies who were being breastfed were placed between two gauze pads. One gauze pad was from the bra of a nursing mother who was a stranger, and the other gauze pad was from the bra of the infant’s own mother. More than two-thirds of the week-old babies turned toward the gauze pad with their mother’s scent.

Physical development

In infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood, the body’s physical development is rapid ( [link] ). On average, newborns weigh between 5 and 10 pounds, and a newborn’s weight typically doubles in six months and triples in one year. By 2 years old the weight will have quadrupled, so we can expect that a 2 year old should weigh between 20 and 40 pounds. The average length of a newborn is 19.5 inches, increasing to 29.5 inches by 12 months and 34.4 inches by 2 years old (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group, 2006).

A collage of four photographs depicting babies is shown. From left to right they get progressively older. The far left photograph is a bundled up sleeping newborn. To the right is a picture of a toddler next to a toy giraffe. To the right is a baby blowing out a single candle. To the far right is a child on a swing set.
Children experience rapid physical changes through infancy and early childhood. (credit "left": modification of work by Kerry Ceszyk; credit "middle-left": modification of work by Kristi Fausel; credit "middle-right": modification of work by "devinf"/Flickr; credit "right": modification of work by Rose Spielman)

During infancy and childhood, growth does not occur at a steady rate (Carel, Lahlou, Roger,&Chaussain, 2004). Growth slows between 4 and 6 years old: During this time children gain 5–7 pounds and grow about 2–3 inches per year. Once girls reach 8–9 years old, their growth rate outpaces that of boys due to a pubertal growth spurt. This growth spurt continues until around 12 years old, coinciding with the start of the menstrual cycle. By 10 years old, the average girl weighs 88 pounds, and the average boy weighs 85 pounds.

We are born with all of the brain cells that we will ever have—about 100–200 billion neurons (nerve cells) whose function is to store and transmit information (Huttenlocher&Dabholkar, 1997). However, the nervous system continues to grow and develop. Each neural pathway forms thousands of new connections during infancy and toddlerhood. This period of rapid neural growth is called blooming. Neural pathways continue to develop through puberty. The blooming period of neural growth is then followed by a period of pruning, where neural connections are reduced. It is thought that pruning causes the brain to function more efficiently, allowing for mastery of more complex skills (Hutchinson, 2011). Blooming occurs during the first few years of life, and pruning continues through childhood and into adolescence in various areas of the brain.

Questions & Answers

how to literally treat if the person had a psychological disorder.
Junalyn Reply
go.to a therapy?
am
variations in psychological attributes
Sweta Reply
what is the psych
Dhiraj Reply
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Angela
what is jpmr. what is its process
Dhiraj
the psych is the Greek meaning for soul,ology is to study
Roland
what is physical development during late childhood?
Sibani Reply
I don't understand the question
Edgar
what's a psy.d degree
Robin Reply
Psychology Doctorate. The main difference between PsyD and PhD Psychology is that PsyD mainly focuses on clinical sessions and PhD focuses on research.
Shrajan
so most of the phd holders become professors teaching what they have learnt
Bridget
Hi, I have a question. What factors influence social facilitation and social inhibition in groups?
Amritpal Reply
it really depends on that person on how the can task in life either they can work better with other people or you do worse working with people.
Lametra
the task
Lametra
they task
Lametra
Do you know of any studies done to show social facilitation and social inhibition
Amritpal
social facilitation is often influenced by the person's perception of the situation and their appraisal of the task. for example, a track athlete who views their competition as a challenge rather than a threat, will tend to run the fastest they have ever ran under a large crowd.
fady
Another condition is if the person has mastered the ability to perform that task. A track athlete who trains everyday, will perform above average under a large crowd, however, someone who does not run, will tend to do worse than their actual ability under a large crowd
fady
social inhibition can be explained through evolutionary biology or attachment personality theory. some people develop an avoidance personality trait, which when they feel under pressure, they tend to leave the group or avoid a gathering due to high lev of stress
fady
Does anyone know how I can transfer my higher national diploma credits in usa?
Qwanta Reply
Oh wow. I never realised there was a chat on this app!
Amritpal Reply
Then welcome dearest
Bridget
Thank you! ❤️
Amritpal
thank you
Ana
welcome babe
Basit
Hello Ana, good afternoon from here
Philip Reply
hello im new student here.
Junalyn Reply
o sorry madm
Rai
hello
Rai
I m also student.
Rai
hi
Kavya
what is easier option to psychology?
Dhanaraj
I'm new too
Deniz
As in the the specialisation or ?
Bridget
good morning
Ana
understanding human nature is what we are going to talk about.
Ana
okay, go ahead
Philip
“ Every child is left to evaluate his experiences for himself, and to take care of his own personal development outside the classroom. There is no tradition for the acquisition of a true knowledge of the human psyche. The science of human nature thus finds itself today in the position that chemis
Ana
well, I think every individual is different and to a great extent we can't say confidently that we understand the human nature in its entirety
Philip
lack determines what we will become in life?.
Ana
Not 100% but it plays a huge role
Philip
Hi! I wasn't aware there was a chat feature on this app 😊
Ophelia
👍Philip Anyaegbu
Ana
cool
Ana
👍
Ana
yes Ana I'm here
Philip
alternatively we are different, we have basic similar qualities
Bridget
Yes true Bridget.
Philip
hello there
Ciel
Hi
Philip
hi
Ej
hi
KUNDAN
hi
Ana
who we are how we think what we do insight
Ana
@ bridget. yes that's true
Ana
Ana ioanidis? do you speak Greek?
Qwanta
Qwanta no I dont speak Greek my husband does
Ana
are you a psychologist? or your husband?
Qwanta
I need some reliable informations about my studies...
Qwanta
not a psychologist
Ana
I ask questions
Ana
i wanna take psychology for college any advice?
am
I think forensic psychology is better
Basit
so what is the cause why a person experiences a psychological disorder if it not of their own?
Junalyn Reply
it's partly genetics,culture, environment and substance abuse. generally these are the common factors which can lead to most of the disorders
war
waoo
Rai
r u proficcer
Rai
u r psychology subject
Rai
not a professor but a clinical psychologist
war
can i ask you, i keep getting headache, and had a history of hypothyroid ans diagnosed as having mild anxiety disorder. i want to finish. my undergraduate psychology thesis.. but always unable to have good ambition and energy to focus on writing the case and the theories... whats the best remedy
Astaroxche
had a headache and have a history
Ana
297 according to the DSM 5
fady
how many disorders are there
Janareon Reply
interesting question
Mahmoud
it is😅
Nelly
I'm guessing it's in the tens of thousands, maybe hundreds if you include counter interactions and stuff like it. although I'm sure it's almost impossible to know for sure, unless you're very rich and connected to the right people. but as I said: guessing.
Beenie
There are more than 200 classified forms of mental illness. Some of the more common disorders are: clinical depression, bipolar disorder, dementia, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Symptoms may include changes in mood, personality, personal habits and/or social withdrawal. that is what I think
Mahmoud
too difficult to number. diagnosing a disorder is just checking off boxes on a compilation of symptoms that might match any particular condition on the DSM
what is psychology of the guest
Lirilong Reply
I don't understand the question can you elaborate?
Edgar
the study of philosophy gives to the sociologist
Aman Reply
why women are viewed as far more emotional than men?
Wario Reply
because they actually are ,I guess.
Collins
May be they are biologically milder than man. It does not mean they are not equal with man. Man can also be emotional and can are oppressed with traditional norms. For example, man are not to be cry, in actual man are also emotional being and they cannot have the right to show their sentiment.
shine
sollungal bro sollungal...
Balaji
because of she has hormonal fluctuations than men..
bavi
usually women are more emotional than men and they are multi talented people
lavanya
Both men and women are capable of expressing emotions. But women has the highest percentage of doing that. Because our society is conditioned by nature in such a way that men are expected to suppress their emotions and motivate them through their acts or thoughts, which has it's side effects of....
Santos
denial of any emotion which they feel that useless at that point. Women in the other hand were encouraged/not controlled to suppress their emotions and let them out what they feel about it. I feel that's the wonderful superpower of the women.
Santos
y
Mahmoud
Men's emotion comes mostly with memories triggered by senses. That means, they thoughts have the power to decide whether to let go of emotions or not.
Santos
Q
Mark
because women tend to be more agreeable than men.
Edgar
women at a young age are conditioned to be more in tune with emotion than man should be less
David
The question is "Why women Viewed are as far more emotional than men ?" it's not a question whether women are more emotional than men. This is more an issue about the point of view from the observer, his/her assumption what emotional behavior is or what emotional behavior is.
Mehmet
The anwers are answers more to the question " Are women more emotional than men?"
Mehmet
i think both genders are very emotional but on the other hand males tend to try not to express their feelings maybe they're scared of being judged "men dont cry"
am
that's because,it's actually been proven that they are
victor
I'd say there are two flips. 1. The point of view of an observer; not everybody who doesn't shed tears every now and then is unemotional. It's just that they try to pretend (fear revealing their vulnerable side before others) 2. It's an individual case. Many humans, emotional, act strong.
Riya
that's how we have been cultured. Those who talk emotional and cry all the time, are weak is a common perception.
Riya
being a man or a woman can be a certification to follow some certain of behaviours in different cultures. like being emotional for women is generally accepted. it's a cultural certification to allow this behaviour. I think this is the general concept of this matter.
Hassan
also I think the fact of milking babies made women to stay at home more common. and they hade to interact with emotional babies. they learn how to cooperate this situation and it became a general culture for longtime.
Hassan
Mehmet, thank you for trying to get this conversation on track with clarifying the question.
Rebecca
I think the different emotions by women or men that are expressed by each are viewed by society in a different manner. example.... male politicians who yell and get angry aren't viewed as emotional, which in this world is often seen as weak, they are viewed as strong leaders who don't back down.
Rebecca
Women who yell in politics are viewed as shrill, emotional, and weak. I think this discrepancy is due to the majorly patriarchal/male dominated world. This is a way to keep women from leadership in any form. It is oppression of the matriarchy.
Rebecca
Women would not put up with the destruction of their children, their mates, the world. Women are primarily care takers. They have a different brain structure, than men. They have different hormones to help them bond with others, such as their children. That has a lot to do with why we procreate.
Rebecca
The views on why women are viewed as more emotional are more than one reason. We have a different make up of hormones and the different emotions we do express are viewed differently in society. This benefits the domination that men have in this world.
Rebecca
That women are MORE emotional is a made up construct to keep men in power.
Rebecca
I hope the two explanations I give, that basically say the same thing in a little different ways, makes sense. I would like to hear what you have say on all that! PEACE
Rebecca
very true answer Rebecca Little 👌👌
Labdhee
sorry. question mark has been typed by mistake.
Labdhee
I would totally disagree with that...I don't understand how or why you would feel like so. because one is more emotional than the other doesn't make them weaker or stronger it's simply pointing out characteristics of a individual. we must look at it as a women and men reason being that there is men
Edgar
out there that are far more emotional than women it's the majority I believe that women are at the higher end of the spectrum in terms of numbers
Edgar
I'm not sure that as been previously suggested that it's hormones, or motherhood. I look at it this way. Less than 50% of men with mental illness self advocate for themselves and get help. Most are raised with the ideology that they aren't supposed or even allowed to value characteristics that have
Keiko
been feminized over time, such as caring and empathy.
Keiko
I don't think that women being more emotional than men is feeding into men being more dominant, in fact if society was to use women being more emotional as a way of dominance over them, it would just backfire because men would struggle to speak on their emotions because it's seen as weak and feminin
Ameen-Ul
feminine
Ameen-Ul
and hence would then have worse mental health issues and would have higher suicide rates
Ameen-Ul
and that is what's happening currently
Ameen-Ul
this is in response to rebecca little
Ameen-Ul
I never said women were more emotional. women are perceived as more emotional and are oppressed for many reasons.
Rebecca
their empathy being just one of the reasons they are oppressed. yes. men are raised to suppress some of their emotions, but emotions like anger, feelings of superiority, and emotions on those ends are encouraged. I don't think emotions have been clarified in the question. there are many emotions!
Rebecca
yeah that's actually true
Basit

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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