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Now let’s take a look at the three errors of distortion: misattribution, suggestibility, and bias. Misattribution happens when you confuse the source of your information. Let’s say Alejandro was dating Lucia and they saw the first Hobbit movie together. Then they broke up and Alejandro saw the second Hobbit movie with someone else. Later that year, Alejandro and Lucia get back together. One day, they are discussing how the Hobbit books and movies are different and Alejandro says to Lucia, “I loved watching the second movie with you and seeing you jump out of your seat during that super scary part.” When Lucia responded with a puzzled and then angry look, Alejandro realized he’d committed the error of misattribution.

What if someone is a victim of rape shortly after watching a television program? Is it possible that the victim could actually blame the rape on the person she saw on television because of misattribution? This is exactly what happened to Donald Thomson.

Australian eyewitness expert Donald Thomson appeared on a live TV discussion about the unreliability of eyewitness memory. He was later arrested, placed in a lineup and identified by a victim as the man who had raped her. The police charged Thomson although the rape had occurred at the time he was on TV. They dismissed his alibi that he was in plain view of a TV audience and in the company of the other discussants, including an assistant commissioner of police. . . . Eventually, the investigators discovered that the rapist had attacked the woman as she was watching TV—the very program on which Thomson had appeared. Authorities eventually cleared Thomson. The woman had confused the rapist's face with the face that she had seen on TV. (Baddeley, 2004, p. 133)

The second distortion error is suggestibility. Suggestibility is similar to misattribution, since it also involves false memories, but it’s different. With misattribution you create the false memory entirely on your own, which is what the victim did in the Donald Thomson case above. With suggestibility, it comes from someone else, such as a therapist or police interviewer asking leading questions of a witness during an interview.

Memories can also be affected by bias    , which is the final distortion error. Schacter (2001) says that your feelings and view of the world can actually distort your memory of past events. There are several types of bias:

  • Stereotypical bias involves racial and gender biases. For example, when Asian American and European American research participants were presented with a list of names, they more frequently incorrectly remembered typical African American names such as Jamal and Tyrone to be associated with the occupation basketball player, and they more frequently incorrectly remembered typical White names such as Greg and Howard to be associated with the occupation of politician (Payne, Jacoby,&Lambert, 2004).
  • Egocentric bias involves enhancing our memories of the past (Payne et al., 2004). Did you really score the winning goal in that big soccer match, or did you just assist?
  • Hindsight bias happens when we think an outcome was inevitable after the fact. This is the “I knew it all along” phenomenon. The reconstructive nature of memory contributes to hindsight bias (Carli, 1999). We remember untrue events that seem to confirm that we knew the outcome all along.

Have you ever had a song play over and over in your head? How about a memory of a traumatic event, something you really do not want to think about? When you keep remembering something, to the point where you can’t “get it out of your head” and it interferes with your ability to concentrate on other things, it is called persistence    . It’s Schacter’s seventh and last memory error. It’s actually a failure of our memory system because we involuntarily recall unwanted memories, particularly unpleasant ones ( [link] ). For instance, you witness a horrific car accident on the way to work one morning, and you can’t concentrate on work because you keep remembering the scene.

A photograph shows two soldiers physically fighting.
Many veterans of military conflicts involuntarily recall unwanted, unpleasant memories. (credit: Department of Defense photo by U.S. Air Force Tech. Sgt. Michael R. Holzworth)

Interference

Sometimes information is stored in our memory, but for some reason it is inaccessible. This is known as interference, and there are two types: proactive interference and retroactive interference ( [link] ). Have you ever gotten a new phone number or moved to a new address, but right after you tell people the old (and wrong) phone number or address? When the new year starts, do you find you accidentally write the previous year? These are examples of proactive interference    : when old information hinders the recall of newly learned information. Retroactive interference happens when information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information. For example, this week you are studying about Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory. Next week you study the humanistic perspective of Maslow and Rogers. Thereafter, you have trouble remembering Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development because you can only remember Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

A diagram shows two types of interference. A box with the text “learn combination to high school locker, 17–04–32” is followed by an arrow pointing right toward a box labeled “memory of old locker combination interferes with recall of new gym locker combination, ??–??–??”; the arrow connecting the two boxes contains the text “proactive interference (old information hinders recall of new information.” Beneath that is a second part of the diagram. A box with the text “knowledge of new email address interferes with recall of old email address, nvayala@???” is followed by an arrow pointing left toward the “early event” box and away from another box labeled “learn sibling’s new college email address, npatel@siblingcollege.edu”; the arrow connecting the two boxes contains the text “retroactive interference (new information hinders recall of old information.”
Sometimes forgetting is caused by a failure to retrieve information. This can be due to interference, either retroactive or proactive.

Summary

All of us at times have felt dismayed, frustrated, and even embarrassed when our memories have failed us. Our memory is flexible and prone to many errors, which is why eyewitness testimony has been found to be largely unreliable. There are several reasons why forgetting occurs. In cases of brain trauma or disease, forgetting may be due to amnesia. Another reason we forget is due to encoding failure. We can’t remember something if we never stored it in our memory in the first place. Schacter presents seven memory errors that also contribute to forgetting. Sometimes, information is actually stored in our memory, but we cannot access it due to interference. Proactive interference happens when old information hinders the recall of newly learned information. Retroactive interference happens when information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information.

Personal application questions

Which of the seven memory errors presented by Schacter have you committed? Provide an example of each one.

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Jurors place a lot of weight on eyewitness testimony. Imagine you are an attorney representing a defendant who is accused of robbing a convenience store. Several eyewitnesses have been called to testify against your client. What would you tell the jurors about the reliability of eyewitness testimony?

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Questions & Answers

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Riv Reply
Boy, looks like you have issue
gor
indeed
john
Hi
Albino
Hi
MentalHealth
taretts....lol or could suffer from pendejositus. that's spanglish for dumbasitus!
Jo
sensation such example
Fateha Reply
what is sensation and example
Fateha
Sensation is the process that allows our brains to take in information via our five senses, which can then be experienced and interpreted by the brain. Sensation occurs thanks to our five sensory systems: vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch.
john
For example, when touched by a soft feather, mechanoreceptors, which are sensory receptors in the skin register that the skin has been touched. That sensory information is then turned into neural information through a process called transduction. Next, the neural information travels down neural p
john
pathways to the appropriate part of the brain, wherein the sensations are perceived as the touch of a feather.
john
thanks john
Fateha
always a pleasure
john
five minutes to rest the best way to relief our stress.
Rhollee
I believe in the whole brain we need not think or even remember what events may have happened.I do think memories will always be stored like to think of the whole brain and heart.Guess that's another surgery..
Bart Reply
I think what has occurred in our life also plays a role in our intellect.
Misty
Agreed.
Laura
the brain is a powerful tool for humans to handle, if you have full access to the brain, you can control pain or anything other emotions, for instance according to my research you can get pain when ever you want.
john
I agree with John full control of our brain we can be able to get thru anything ...
Sonia
@john you mean using our memory?
Cherrie
painful memories, yeah you can control them too, @cherrie depression is bunch of chemicals pain is too with pain receptors and motor nerves
john
wawoo amazing
Khadim
is that sarcasm @khadim
john
thank you @sonia
john
if you want peace of mind.. simply don't fight with your thoughts!
omar
that's what I said brain controls everything, if we control the brain and thought process, things will be simplified, hell it will easy peasy life
john
hmmm
omar
why is learning important
Elkanah Reply
you actually want an answer for this? :0
Sohaib
learning is important because without learning you wouldn't even be able to have asked that question, among a plethora of other reasons my friend.
iWasHacked
In case that wasn't a joke.
iWasHacked
do you think that the moon is holo as when nasa made any heavy impact on it's surface it is recorded that I was shook for a while.
Raman
Your been what? Behavior is not what you know it's how you behave yourself.. Learning is important to me as we learn more is gained in life's work.
Bart
Bart Gross that didnt even make sense dude.
iWasHacked
Ramen Prasad that I don't think has any correlation to the question.
iWasHacked
The fact that the President saw or not can be a fear although with children and events the president had on his mind can not be assertataind I'm in the thinking he knew of a eye event seeing than remembering I'd have to disagree..
Bart
I also disagree that the whole brain theory it's environment, DNA I believe that in some way the Memory travels through sensors nerve cells. thanks
Bart
Bart. you must be commenting on the wrong section...
iWasHacked
explain inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha Reply
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
you want intelligence definition and the nature of it and their characteristics
john
a teacher needs to understand and explain the behavior and activities of a learner both in class room and outside the classroom.establish how this can be achieved
Doris Reply
how can a teacher understand the behaviour change of a students in class room
Doris
observation and conservation of treasured items
Crystal
how can a teacher observer the learners
Doris
Well I know a teacher who observes the overall mood of some of her students expecially ones who tend to yell at people who annoy them. She knows the steps to one of them about to go off and send the person outside for a chat (the person annoying them or the person about to go off).
another point please, How can a teacher observe the learners behavior in class
Doris
Just that observing patterns of behaviour
"observation and conservation of treasured items" All the way. Love it.
PJ
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?
Nikhil Reply
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?q
Nikhil
I can't answer that. I barely made it through statistiçs
Karen
i forgot to add, its Social Psychology Research
Nikhil
Depends on whether it's clinical OR a naturalistic research
Wayne
can I listen to start with
Karen Reply
I was here before but got lost
Karen
hello
Sheik
hi
California
hiiiii all
Khadim
I wanna be a young psychologist....
Sheik
Define perception of human nature and its significance
Aslam Reply
Psychology is important for different programs to study because of its ability to build students critical thinking and by so doing, improve their ability to sieve information, thereby improving overall learning outcomes
Vincent Reply
I have a question about sex addiction how can you tell someone would have sex with anything like child man woman old young even an animal I have a feeling the guy I'm with is someone that could do anything because he has no self control and he is a narcissist that also has a addition to meth..
Alexis Reply
How did you get to meet this guy
Wayne
hello may i ask How long have you been seeing this guy and what kind of signs were givin to come to this conclusion,? along with what you've shared on top here?
Jo
Facebook but we had the same friends but never met before but have been together for 5 years and its been hell I now have PTSD and now no intrest in doing what I love because he puts me down for doing so or makes me feel stupid for feeling the way I do about things
Alexis
been together for 5 years things were good at first he was really nice if I needed something he made sure to get it but once I moved I with him he started calling me names but once we got our own place he got abusive and pretty much had me as a prisoner in my own home
Alexis
also when he gets high he gets very turned on to the point he would masturbate several times a day only time we would have sex is if I was asleep or we would fight to the point of abusing each other then he would want to have sex but he also seemed to be very weird around kids
Alexis
but if sober he wanted nothing to do with him he would actually make me take my brother to my mother's room and not let him come out and play with his toys also I had my son asleep in his room with the TV and night light on seth said he was going to get a shower well the water was on I thought he
Alexis
it sounds like this guys is someone who can be very dangerous if under the influence. I highly recommend getting yourself and children away from him. He may seem like a nice guy but in my limited experience its better to play it safe not only for your own safety but especially for the children.
April
you gotta leave the relationship.. it sounds like it won't end so well and the fact that he's using meth; that alone is a very huge red flag
GL
I agree with GL Rocketeer
April
yes I do also but I want to think it's just the drugs but he still is very one sided and not caring of others feelings
Alexis
one thing I could share with u from individuals ive spoken wit is that a person who smokes or especially runs it becomes extremely "turned on" and or to the point were they'll masturbate or seek outside their relationship to satisfy their wants or needs. so honestly i dont think its a bad I idea...
Jo
fr them in this situation out of his sight,out of his mind!-
Jo
so yea id agree, pick up and flee! Good luck in your situation and may God protect u and yours during this time!
Jo
thanks you guys I've asked for advice from family but no one actually listened to me and just pushed it aside
Alexis
I also agree wit miss april, about methin around wit this guy, and already abused u already kno wat ones capable of. theroriticly if one day he looses his sack or been up for few days to were sleep deprivation begins to alter his jugment and emotions , possibilitys Are high, and could hurt someone
Jo
it is better to make a plan, get everything ready. Then make your move, if it is drug out over time and this guy still has access to you. He will try to convince you he will change and stop. He will agree with everything you say to make you believe him. it will be lies.
Admin
gestalt theory of learning with example sultan
Rohit
A friend of mine experiences homicidal thoughts. She doesn't believe she would act upon it, but it definitely happens more than the average person (which, most people at least in one point in their lives experience homicidal thoughts). She is a diagnosed sociopath.
Corrupt Reply
Mostly I feel she would need a hobby or a purpose in life.. Finding determination to achieve something is tough for some people already, in your friend's condition it's even more challenging
Samrat
Friends and family are important support system.. She also has to reach out for help
Samrat
she is bored if the normal life, basically the drama is more around her I guess, so try to give her some puzzle, question her about, basically she is in chaotic thoughts, guess she has been watching some movies with homicidal content
john
A person who is bored with life, won't find anything to distract her. She needs someone who will listen to why she feels like this, and ask her what would make her happy, and work with what she answers
Jessamine
i agree with Samrat and John
Emily
@jessamine, sociopath behavior, if we keep on asking her questions about happy in the beginning of the treatment, she might be aggressive on happy
john
Didn't know she was aggressive
Jessamine
And Jessamine
Emily
Many things to take into account before actually doing something. psychologists have to analyze the person see how they act and respond
Jessamine
sociopathic aggression will be manipulation or conning, sociopaths can turn a person strength into weakness, and if piss off a sociopath the effect will be on others I mean surroundings will be effected or people, sometimes they might hurt themselves, they are incapable of love, I guess if we ask
john
questions or puzzles, manipulated people need some juice to brain and that juice is puzzles, or questions about her thoughts
john
yeah valid point miss @jessamine
john
good day can I ask something here?
Aiszel
what is the different of alters and multiple personality disorder? sorry I just want to know another answers about it *look down*
Aiszel
sorry @fermia you questions is quite confusing can you please repeat the questions
john
I suppose your question is what is the difference between alter personality disorder and multiple personality disorder? well both will be coming under DID disassociative identity disorder, in that alter personality is a system, and sequence they go through and multiple personality disorder is a
john
is a truma where the person will avoid the the pervious memories, with multiple personalities to over come the truma
john
am correct?
john
I can't speak upon that
Crystal
how can you calm yourself when in distress.. i cant simply calm my nerves with breathing.. negative result
Nicki Reply
Depending on the severity of said distress it depends on how extensive your feelings of anxiety & panic are. So the most universally applicable "safe method", would be to attempt to change subjects, as in doing something possibly unrelated to keep busy mentally
Miguel
If that's not sufficient enough aside from the plethora of other alternatives I'm sure you've probably searched online. I'd like to understand a little better how "difficult" things become? Hyperventilating? Feeling like a heartattack? Or just overwhelming apprehension, worry, etc?
Miguel
what kind of distress? And how do you get a negative result from breathing?
iWasHacked
i feel worry, hyperventilating.. i cant control my breathing sometimes.. my bad past shows up, then i stupidly doubting myself a lot.. cant even look ppl in the eye n lock myself in my room. i try the breathing methods on google but it doesn't work, maybe i need someone to help me. such a pussy
Nicki
how the hell did this conversation get on my messages
mauReeN
meesages
mauReeN
idk
Nicki
I'm still trying to figure out what this is exactly.
Jonah
I have problems with hyperventilating as well so I can understand, so usually when I'm having an episode like that I concentrate intently on one object (ex. the floor, its design, the details in it, how it feels under my hands, etc).
iWasHacked
The Last time I had an episode it got intense enough where my extremites went numb and tingly and I couldnt see straight(probably close to fainting) with an intense pressure in my head and I had focused on the way the floor felt under my hands(stimulation helps).
iWasHacked
even though I couldnt really feel much but I had calmed down. Another thing that could possibly help is reciting over and over in your head if you are able to "I'm ok, just calm down,everything is fine you are going to be ok, you are safe breathe in and then out" this is usally what i do on the mild
iWasHacked
cases when I am just starting but when the hyperventilating gets intense freaking out from the loss of feeling is i think normal but its important to try and stay calm and try some stimulation for distraction. Other times my mother has helped to calm me down a lot, she usually was the one to help me
iWasHacked
so maybe ask for somebody to talk to you in that situation to distract your mind. Another thing I find is its best to sit down on your knees on the floor because if you faint you dont want to hit your head and usually when hyperventilating I surely cannot stand up straight so its just easier
iWasHacked
and you'll have one less thing to worry about in that situation. I really hope one of these can help you, its a very stressful situation and I really hope you can find some peace. Just remember that because something works for somebody else does not mean it will work for you so don't get upset if
iWasHacked
these dont help you just keep looking for something that works for you. You could also try some meditation outside of your episodes and maybe incorporate the meditation when you hyperventilate? Good luck!💛
iWasHacked
sorry for so many comments it wouldnt let me put it all in one comment lmao. Hope it helps.
iWasHacked
12345
Graced
I feel anticipating the situation and knowing that it could've been worse, can calm you down.. you basically need to be okay with whatever life throws at you and think ahead
Samrat
how do you get someone to stop smoking marijuana
Eduardo Reply
you dont ..They need to want it for them self no one can make anything they don't want..They need to learn to have self control to live with out it..
Barrera
anyone**
Barrera
I lost 32 lbs in 6 weeks because all I could do was dry heave. Don't judge someone when you know nothing about them or their struggles
Tara
first you need to pinpoint why they are using it. There may be a health motive behind it.. if so marijuana is the most natural form of any pain relief available. It has several health benefits depending on the user and purposes.
Even
I get someone from smoking marijuana when I look at the bad side of it
austin
you know guys marijuana is a med but all meds will be bad if youll use it exessively
facts
Anxiety is why I stopped
Gianni
First question is. Why are you wanting to get somebody to quit? It could be purely their choice even knowing the side affects and if that's so you cant really do anything. Last, how long has this person been smoking and why is he or she smoking?
iWasHacked
What are some usual cognitive behavioral therapy routines for people dealing with addiction? More specifically, a case of a 21 y.o man with a comorbidity of marijuana addiction, addiction to sexual fantasy & pleasure, and an addiction to food. If you guys could help, I would appreciate it :)
Eduardo Reply
what does marijuana do in the body of a person?
austin

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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