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Parasomnias

A parasomnia is one of a group of sleep disorders in which unwanted, disruptive motor activity and/or experiences during sleep play a role. Parasomnias can occur in either REM or NREM phases of sleep. Sleepwalking, restless leg syndrome, and night terrors are all examples of parasomnias (Mahowald&Schenck, 2000).

Sleepwalking

In sleepwalking    , or somnambulism, the sleeper engages in relatively complex behaviors ranging from wandering about to driving an automobile. During periods of sleepwalking, sleepers often have their eyes open, but they are not responsive to attempts to communicate with them. Sleepwalking most often occurs during slow-wave sleep, but it can occur at any time during a sleep period in some affected individuals (Mahowald&Schenck, 2000).

Historically, somnambulism has been treated with a variety of pharmacotherapies ranging from benzodiazepines to antidepressants. However, the success rate of such treatments is questionable. Guilleminault et al. (2005) found that sleepwalking was not alleviated with the use of benzodiazepines. However, all of their somnambulistic patients who also suffered from sleep-related breathing problems showed a marked decrease in sleepwalking when their breathing problems were effectively treated.

A sleepwalking defense?

On January 16, 1997, Scott Falater sat down to dinner with his wife and children and told them about difficulties he was experiencing on a project at work. After dinner, he prepared some materials to use in leading a church youth group the following morning, and then he attempted repair the family’s swimming pool pump before retiring to bed. The following morning, he awoke to barking dogs and unfamiliar voices from downstairs. As he went to investigate what was going on, he was met by a group of police officers who arrested him for the murder of his wife (Cartwright, 2004; CNN, 1999).

Yarmila Falater’s body was found in the family’s pool with 44 stab wounds. A neighbor called the police after witnessing Falater standing over his wife’s body before dragging her into the pool. Upon a search of the premises, police found blood-stained clothes and a bloody knife in the trunk of Falater’s car, and he had blood stains on his neck.

Remarkably, Falater insisted that he had no recollection of hurting his wife in any way. His children and his wife’s parents all agreed that Falater had an excellent relationship with his wife and they couldn’t think of a reason that would provide any sort of motive to murder her (Cartwright, 2004).

Scott Falater had a history of regular episodes of sleepwalking as a child, and he had even behaved violently toward his sister once when she tried to prevent him from leaving their home in his pajamas during a sleepwalking episode. He suffered from no apparent anatomical brain anomalies or psychological disorders. It appeared that Scott Falater had killed his wife in his sleep, or at least, that is the defense he used when he was tried for his wife’s murder (Cartwright, 2004; CNN, 1999). In Falater’s case, a jury found him guilty of first degree murder in June of 1999 (CNN, 1999); however, there are other murder cases where the sleepwalking defense has been used successfully. As scary as it sounds, many sleep researchers believe that homicidal sleepwalking is possible in individuals suffering from the types of sleep disorders described below (Broughton et al., 1994; Cartwright, 2004; Mahowald, Schenck,&Cramer Bornemann, 2005; Pressman, 2007).

Questions & Answers

What is Repression?
Sharmin Reply
Repression, In psychoanalytic theory, the exclusion of distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings from the conscious mind. Often involving sexual or aggressive urges or painful childhood memories, these unwanted mental contents are pushed into the unconscious mind.
Forqan
It helps students to understand the behavior of people they encounter.
Anjonette Reply
what are the types of learning?
Ogbeyemi Reply
auditory, visual, kinesthetic, reading/writing
frederick
thanks @Frederick. But I still want to understand something. Classical conditioning, Operants conditioning and Observational learning are not types of learning?
Ogbeyemi
I believe there are several types of learning besides just the four I mentioned.
frederick
so, I can also say those I mentioned are part of learning?
Ogbeyemi
i would say so
frederick
便貼 便利條說
Yim
Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Forqan
what is psychology
Mukoone Reply
in simple explanation, it is the study and understanding of the human behavior
Edmar
the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context.
naina
the scientific study of human mind and behaviour
NishaOfficial
but I thought psychology is not limited to humans. I think it is the scientific study of behavior and mental process of organisms
Ogbeyemi
processes*
Ogbeyemi
what happened to my reply?
Trish
the study of human behavior, the reasons for the behavior, and ways to change the undesirable behaviors into desirable behaviors
RD
psychology is the study of the soul or mind of man through scientific studies relating to environmental factors and human behaviours.
Audley
not only man but animals as well
Audley
psychology is the study of the mind and behaviors*
Emely
the definition you gave Audley is incorrect
Emely
Hey Audley, also humans are animals, so the correct way to say it is.. Not only man but other animals as well. 👍🏽
Emely
Audley, you are both correct in the definition of psychology. Yours was textually from the book, while the other was simple and to the heart of it where a novice would understand.
Bosie
Emely, you stated that man is a animal as well. Explain?
Bosie
_____are the memory images that are related to particular place ,date and time .
Raghav Reply
what is psychology
Ayado Reply
can join your discussions
Ayado
he or she can
Edward
I have been wondering of minor Autism I have estrange daughter that has I have been divorced and things like the ex wife sister told bad things about Me, Which I was not there to defend my self was said. one part) the other is the ex wife mom took care of her and never gave her kind of up bringing
Edward
Much and now she is 28 has a pension cause of her Autism she has everyone like her 2brothers her mom and her father had said to go on andfor-get the past she had not wanting to only seen her once I tried to make contact online she does not my contact from G circle
Edward
too bad
Ibrahim
what is rootology
Glory Reply
Rootology is a blend of 13 concentrated herbal extracts that support against sneezing, congestion, sinus pressure, runny nose, itchy watery eyes, and headache.
Labdhee
a child playing with the friend without complaining is called
Valerie Reply
free child
Nisha
psycosocial development
Anita
playful & sporty child
Jaga
The scope of Experimental Psychology is widening with the invention of new tools and instruments for experiments.
Den Reply
like what kind?
MissRoyal
hello, what kind of people talk throught here
Marcela Reply
the kind looking for answers
Juan
?
John
thought is autonomous. it is up to us compartmentalizing these random various thoughts that we too often incorrectly give them the title of (ideas)
John
what is the scope of experimental psychology?
Fareha
who is pavlo
ROGATH Reply
he believed in classic conditioning
just
he created classical conditioning
naina
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
lavanya
he developed the theory is classical conditioning on a dog
NishaOfficial
Hello... Gyatri, angel and thinker.. I am MJ.
Mujtaba Reply
hi
naina
Hello
Jeanica
How are you...?
Mujtaba
Fine
Jeanica
Where are you from?
Jeanica
hi everyone 😊
Luis
I'm not trying to be a killjoy but I don't think this is a conversation thread for meeting new people.
Aspen
there are plenty of apps for that
Aspen
hai
kumpulan
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Luis
but if they turn it into something like a "dating app" then for me that's another story. just saying. 😊.
Luis
hello Everyone
artgalang
Hello Luis, this app is for friends to everyone. 😊🙏
Jeanica
Anyone having problem can leave
Mujtaba
Hi
Red
Hi
Esther
Hello
Jeanica
hello^^
Girlie
is this a Psychology Course GC?
artgalang
Hi I'm from Philippines 🇵🇭
Esther
hellow
Erick
Can anyone.... What is basic criteria for abnormalities...?
Mujtaba
Is here any psychologist or psychiatrist.
Mujtaba
hi Jeanica yes I know that 😊
Luis
hello
Fermin
yes psychologist I am
kirti
me too
artgalang
Can you please explain me Diathesis stress model and its application
Mujtaba
And how can it applied..
Mujtaba
What is randomization
Joseph Reply
definition of stimulus
Thomas Reply
an idea, object or effect via the help of a mediational process which elicits a response
Wayne
please explain me clinical studies
abril Reply
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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