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Parasomnias

A parasomnia is one of a group of sleep disorders in which unwanted, disruptive motor activity and/or experiences during sleep play a role. Parasomnias can occur in either REM or NREM phases of sleep. Sleepwalking, restless leg syndrome, and night terrors are all examples of parasomnias (Mahowald&Schenck, 2000).

Sleepwalking

In sleepwalking    , or somnambulism, the sleeper engages in relatively complex behaviors ranging from wandering about to driving an automobile. During periods of sleepwalking, sleepers often have their eyes open, but they are not responsive to attempts to communicate with them. Sleepwalking most often occurs during slow-wave sleep, but it can occur at any time during a sleep period in some affected individuals (Mahowald&Schenck, 2000).

Historically, somnambulism has been treated with a variety of pharmacotherapies ranging from benzodiazepines to antidepressants. However, the success rate of such treatments is questionable. Guilleminault et al. (2005) found that sleepwalking was not alleviated with the use of benzodiazepines. However, all of their somnambulistic patients who also suffered from sleep-related breathing problems showed a marked decrease in sleepwalking when their breathing problems were effectively treated.

A sleepwalking defense?

On January 16, 1997, Scott Falater sat down to dinner with his wife and children and told them about difficulties he was experiencing on a project at work. After dinner, he prepared some materials to use in leading a church youth group the following morning, and then he attempted repair the family’s swimming pool pump before retiring to bed. The following morning, he awoke to barking dogs and unfamiliar voices from downstairs. As he went to investigate what was going on, he was met by a group of police officers who arrested him for the murder of his wife (Cartwright, 2004; CNN, 1999).

Yarmila Falater’s body was found in the family’s pool with 44 stab wounds. A neighbor called the police after witnessing Falater standing over his wife’s body before dragging her into the pool. Upon a search of the premises, police found blood-stained clothes and a bloody knife in the trunk of Falater’s car, and he had blood stains on his neck.

Remarkably, Falater insisted that he had no recollection of hurting his wife in any way. His children and his wife’s parents all agreed that Falater had an excellent relationship with his wife and they couldn’t think of a reason that would provide any sort of motive to murder her (Cartwright, 2004).

Scott Falater had a history of regular episodes of sleepwalking as a child, and he had even behaved violently toward his sister once when she tried to prevent him from leaving their home in his pajamas during a sleepwalking episode. He suffered from no apparent anatomical brain anomalies or psychological disorders. It appeared that Scott Falater had killed his wife in his sleep, or at least, that is the defense he used when he was tried for his wife’s murder (Cartwright, 2004; CNN, 1999). In Falater’s case, a jury found him guilty of first degree murder in June of 1999 (CNN, 1999); however, there are other murder cases where the sleepwalking defense has been used successfully. As scary as it sounds, many sleep researchers believe that homicidal sleepwalking is possible in individuals suffering from the types of sleep disorders described below (Broughton et al., 1994; Cartwright, 2004; Mahowald, Schenck,&Cramer Bornemann, 2005; Pressman, 2007).

Questions & Answers

sensation such example
Fateha Reply
what is sensation and example
Fateha
Sensation is the process that allows our brains to take in information via our five senses, which can then be experienced and interpreted by the brain. Sensation occurs thanks to our five sensory systems: vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch.
john
For example, when touched by a soft feather, mechanoreceptors, which are sensory receptors in the skin register that the skin has been touched. That sensory information is then turned into neural information through a process called transduction. Next, the neural information travels down neural p
john
pathways to the appropriate part of the brain, wherein the sensations are perceived as the touch of a feather.
john
thanks john
Fateha
always a pleasure
john
five minutes to rest the best way to relief our stress.
Rhollee
I believe in the whole brain we need not think or even remember what events may have happened.I do think memories will always be stored like to think of the whole brain and heart.Guess that's another surgery..
Bart Reply
I think what has occurred in our life also plays a role in our intellect.
Misty
Agreed.
Laura
the brain is a powerful tool for humans to handle, if you have full access to the brain, you can control pain or anything other emotions, for instance according to my research you can get pain when ever you want.
john
I agree with John full control of our brain we can be able to get thru anything ...
Sonia
@john you mean using our memory?
Cherrie
painful memories, yeah you can control them too, @cherrie depression is bunch of chemicals pain is too with pain receptors and motor nerves
john
wawoo amazing
Khadim
is that sarcasm @khadim
john
thank you @sonia
john
if you want peace of mind.. simply don't fight with your thoughts!
omar
that's what I said brain controls everything, if we control the brain and thought process, things will be simplified, hell it will easy peasy life
john
hmmm
omar
why is learning important
Elkanah Reply
you actually want an answer for this? :0
Sohaib
learning is important because without learning you wouldn't even be able to have asked that question, among a plethora of other reasons my friend.
iWasHacked
In case that wasn't a joke.
iWasHacked
do you think that the moon is holo as when nasa made any heavy impact on it's surface it is recorded that I was shook for a while.
Raman
Your been what? Behavior is not what you know it's how you behave yourself.. Learning is important to me as we learn more is gained in life's work.
Bart
Bart Gross that didnt even make sense dude.
iWasHacked
Ramen Prasad that I don't think has any correlation to the question.
iWasHacked
The fact that the President saw or not can be a fear although with children and events the president had on his mind can not be assertataind I'm in the thinking he knew of a eye event seeing than remembering I'd have to disagree..
Bart
I also disagree that the whole brain theory it's environment, DNA I believe that in some way the Memory travels through sensors nerve cells. thanks
Bart
Bart. you must be commenting on the wrong section...
iWasHacked
explain inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha Reply
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
inteligents definition ,nature and characteristics
Faristha
you want intelligence definition and the nature of it and their characteristics
john
a teacher needs to understand and explain the behavior and activities of a learner both in class room and outside the classroom.establish how this can be achieved
Doris Reply
how can a teacher understand the behaviour change of a students in class room
Doris
observation and conservation of treasured items
Crystal
how can a teacher observer the learners
Doris
Well I know a teacher who observes the overall mood of some of her students expecially ones who tend to yell at people who annoy them. She knows the steps to one of them about to go off and send the person outside for a chat (the person annoying them or the person about to go off).
another point please, How can a teacher observe the learners behavior in class
Doris
Just that observing patterns of behaviour
"observation and conservation of treasured items" All the way. Love it.
PJ
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?
Nikhil Reply
Do i need a lab and a instructor to carry out Psychology empirical research?q
Nikhil
I can't answer that. I barely made it through statistiçs
Karen
i forgot to add, its Social Psychology Research
Nikhil
Depends on whether it's clinical OR a naturalistic research
Wayne
can I listen to start with
Karen Reply
I was here before but got lost
Karen
hello
Sheik
hi
California
hiiiii all
Khadim
I wanna be a young psychologist....
Sheik
Define perception of human nature and its significance
Aslam Reply
Psychology is important for different programs to study because of its ability to build students critical thinking and by so doing, improve their ability to sieve information, thereby improving overall learning outcomes
Vincent Reply
I have a question about sex addiction how can you tell someone would have sex with anything like child man woman old young even an animal I have a feeling the guy I'm with is someone that could do anything because he has no self control and he is a narcissist that also has a addition to meth..
Alexis Reply
How did you get to meet this guy
Wayne
hello may i ask How long have you been seeing this guy and what kind of signs were givin to come to this conclusion,? along with what you've shared on top here?
Jo
Facebook but we had the same friends but never met before but have been together for 5 years and its been hell I now have PTSD and now no intrest in doing what I love because he puts me down for doing so or makes me feel stupid for feeling the way I do about things
Alexis
been together for 5 years things were good at first he was really nice if I needed something he made sure to get it but once I moved I with him he started calling me names but once we got our own place he got abusive and pretty much had me as a prisoner in my own home
Alexis
also when he gets high he gets very turned on to the point he would masturbate several times a day only time we would have sex is if I was asleep or we would fight to the point of abusing each other then he would want to have sex but he also seemed to be very weird around kids
Alexis
but if sober he wanted nothing to do with him he would actually make me take my brother to my mother's room and not let him come out and play with his toys also I had my son asleep in his room with the TV and night light on seth said he was going to get a shower well the water was on I thought he
Alexis
it sounds like this guys is someone who can be very dangerous if under the influence. I highly recommend getting yourself and children away from him. He may seem like a nice guy but in my limited experience its better to play it safe not only for your own safety but especially for the children.
April
you gotta leave the relationship.. it sounds like it won't end so well and the fact that he's using meth; that alone is a very huge red flag
GL
I agree with GL Rocketeer
April
yes I do also but I want to think it's just the drugs but he still is very one sided and not caring of others feelings
Alexis
one thing I could share with u from individuals ive spoken wit is that a person who smokes or especially runs it becomes extremely "turned on" and or to the point were they'll masturbate or seek outside their relationship to satisfy their wants or needs. so honestly i dont think its a bad I idea...
Jo
fr them in this situation out of his sight,out of his mind!-
Jo
so yea id agree, pick up and flee! Good luck in your situation and may God protect u and yours during this time!
Jo
thanks you guys I've asked for advice from family but no one actually listened to me and just pushed it aside
Alexis
I also agree wit miss april, about methin around wit this guy, and already abused u already kno wat ones capable of. theroriticly if one day he looses his sack or been up for few days to were sleep deprivation begins to alter his jugment and emotions , possibilitys Are high, and could hurt someone
Jo
it is better to make a plan, get everything ready. Then make your move, if it is drug out over time and this guy still has access to you. He will try to convince you he will change and stop. He will agree with everything you say to make you believe him. it will be lies.
Admin
gestalt theory of learning with example sultan
Rohit
A friend of mine experiences homicidal thoughts. She doesn't believe she would act upon it, but it definitely happens more than the average person (which, most people at least in one point in their lives experience homicidal thoughts). She is a diagnosed sociopath.
Corrupt Reply
Mostly I feel she would need a hobby or a purpose in life.. Finding determination to achieve something is tough for some people already, in your friend's condition it's even more challenging
Samrat
Friends and family are important support system.. She also has to reach out for help
Samrat
she is bored if the normal life, basically the drama is more around her I guess, so try to give her some puzzle, question her about, basically she is in chaotic thoughts, guess she has been watching some movies with homicidal content
john
A person who is bored with life, won't find anything to distract her. She needs someone who will listen to why she feels like this, and ask her what would make her happy, and work with what she answers
Jessamine
i agree with Samrat and John
Emily
@jessamine, sociopath behavior, if we keep on asking her questions about happy in the beginning of the treatment, she might be aggressive on happy
john
Didn't know she was aggressive
Jessamine
And Jessamine
Emily
Many things to take into account before actually doing something. psychologists have to analyze the person see how they act and respond
Jessamine
sociopathic aggression will be manipulation or conning, sociopaths can turn a person strength into weakness, and if piss off a sociopath the effect will be on others I mean surroundings will be effected or people, sometimes they might hurt themselves, they are incapable of love, I guess if we ask
john
questions or puzzles, manipulated people need some juice to brain and that juice is puzzles, or questions about her thoughts
john
yeah valid point miss @jessamine
john
good day can I ask something here?
Aiszel
what is the different of alters and multiple personality disorder? sorry I just want to know another answers about it *look down*
Aiszel
sorry @fermia you questions is quite confusing can you please repeat the questions
john
I suppose your question is what is the difference between alter personality disorder and multiple personality disorder? well both will be coming under DID disassociative identity disorder, in that alter personality is a system, and sequence they go through and multiple personality disorder is a
john
is a truma where the person will avoid the the pervious memories, with multiple personalities to over come the truma
john
am correct?
john
I can't speak upon that
Crystal
how can you calm yourself when in distress.. i cant simply calm my nerves with breathing.. negative result
Nicki Reply
Depending on the severity of said distress it depends on how extensive your feelings of anxiety & panic are. So the most universally applicable "safe method", would be to attempt to change subjects, as in doing something possibly unrelated to keep busy mentally
Miguel
If that's not sufficient enough aside from the plethora of other alternatives I'm sure you've probably searched online. I'd like to understand a little better how "difficult" things become? Hyperventilating? Feeling like a heartattack? Or just overwhelming apprehension, worry, etc?
Miguel
what kind of distress? And how do you get a negative result from breathing?
iWasHacked
i feel worry, hyperventilating.. i cant control my breathing sometimes.. my bad past shows up, then i stupidly doubting myself a lot.. cant even look ppl in the eye n lock myself in my room. i try the breathing methods on google but it doesn't work, maybe i need someone to help me. such a pussy
Nicki
how the hell did this conversation get on my messages
mauReeN
meesages
mauReeN
idk
Nicki
I'm still trying to figure out what this is exactly.
Jonah
I have problems with hyperventilating as well so I can understand, so usually when I'm having an episode like that I concentrate intently on one object (ex. the floor, its design, the details in it, how it feels under my hands, etc).
iWasHacked
The Last time I had an episode it got intense enough where my extremites went numb and tingly and I couldnt see straight(probably close to fainting) with an intense pressure in my head and I had focused on the way the floor felt under my hands(stimulation helps).
iWasHacked
even though I couldnt really feel much but I had calmed down. Another thing that could possibly help is reciting over and over in your head if you are able to "I'm ok, just calm down,everything is fine you are going to be ok, you are safe breathe in and then out" this is usally what i do on the mild
iWasHacked
cases when I am just starting but when the hyperventilating gets intense freaking out from the loss of feeling is i think normal but its important to try and stay calm and try some stimulation for distraction. Other times my mother has helped to calm me down a lot, she usually was the one to help me
iWasHacked
so maybe ask for somebody to talk to you in that situation to distract your mind. Another thing I find is its best to sit down on your knees on the floor because if you faint you dont want to hit your head and usually when hyperventilating I surely cannot stand up straight so its just easier
iWasHacked
and you'll have one less thing to worry about in that situation. I really hope one of these can help you, its a very stressful situation and I really hope you can find some peace. Just remember that because something works for somebody else does not mean it will work for you so don't get upset if
iWasHacked
these dont help you just keep looking for something that works for you. You could also try some meditation outside of your episodes and maybe incorporate the meditation when you hyperventilate? Good luck!💛
iWasHacked
sorry for so many comments it wouldnt let me put it all in one comment lmao. Hope it helps.
iWasHacked
12345
Graced
I feel anticipating the situation and knowing that it could've been worse, can calm you down.. you basically need to be okay with whatever life throws at you and think ahead
Samrat
how do you get someone to stop smoking marijuana
Eduardo Reply
you dont ..They need to want it for them self no one can make anything they don't want..They need to learn to have self control to live with out it..
Barrera
anyone**
Barrera
I lost 32 lbs in 6 weeks because all I could do was dry heave. Don't judge someone when you know nothing about them or their struggles
Tara
first you need to pinpoint why they are using it. There may be a health motive behind it.. if so marijuana is the most natural form of any pain relief available. It has several health benefits depending on the user and purposes.
Even
I get someone from smoking marijuana when I look at the bad side of it
austin
you know guys marijuana is a med but all meds will be bad if youll use it exessively
facts
Anxiety is why I stopped
Gianni
First question is. Why are you wanting to get somebody to quit? It could be purely their choice even knowing the side affects and if that's so you cant really do anything. Last, how long has this person been smoking and why is he or she smoking?
iWasHacked
What are some usual cognitive behavioral therapy routines for people dealing with addiction? More specifically, a case of a 21 y.o man with a comorbidity of marijuana addiction, addiction to sexual fantasy & pleasure, and an addiction to food. If you guys could help, I would appreciate it :)
Eduardo Reply
what does marijuana do in the body of a person?
austin
What's the best way to keep ur cool when in a relationship, when u have a short temper for people playing dumb, insulting your intelligence as if they really think u r believing the crap there telling u? I mean its soooo aggravating for someone like me not to have broke him in half already but I want to do all I can to help him cuz I love him and I'm learning all I can to help us both
Todd Reply
Pepole need to want change on there own, by u keep helping you are becoming an enabler.. Live by example and others will fallow..
Barrera
i'd say the relationship isn't healthy. if he is aware that he is hurting you by insulting you, than he does it to assert power. I'd say a healthy relationship needs to have an equal say in everything. In relationships, you often have to rely on the other. if he isnt there, take it as a sign.
Eduardo
you sho right Eduardo, anger can be controlled, it takes patience, strong mind and instantaneous thinking to, but from experience i believe narcacissm could be a factor! they tend to deny the fact of recognizing their faults to avoid the shame label, and so on...
Jo
He hits me starts fights then wonders why I stay away from h im.Right now I have no where be to go.I starting to get physically ill from the stress.Plus he never takes me anywhere and I left her by myself all the time.I never see people unless it's his friends.I know it's not good for me.I am alon
Vicki
For me How do I cope find inner peace.I cry all the time.
Vicki
Hello everyone.
Jonah
To find inner peace seek God 100% believe and you will never be the same again like crying all the time because that's what the devil wants from you and don't stuck up like just cry, be depressed it's just an example move forward not reverse and think & do with all your might the things that could
mary
possibly go right if you just conquer it with a burning desire, just dont stay stuck up explore there's so much things that u need to unravel
mary
Hello too.
mary
Hi, Todd I just want to share this to you. You see love is a two-way you give and receive its never a one-way road if you get what I mean. I know its hard for you but your significant other should understand you, it's not always him/her that needs to lend a caring, support, understanding. Your not
mary
dumb neither your significant other so both of you should talk about it and tell him/her what you've been through in the relationship. Don't hate on me Todd I'm just giving my opinion.
mary
What do you think the kind of relationship you have? All they tell you is indeed true and has point but are you clear with your relationship?
Dark
All he/she wants is to feel some importance so give him the importance he is grieving for and always when your in a conversation talk about his point of view and encourage him to talk about himself more.
Abdirahman
When you disagree something with him don't oppose him just say you maybe correct but this what I thought and then say your opinion. Just remember that you cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him to find it within himself. Be wiser than other people if you can; but do not tell them so.
Abdirahman
If they truly love you they will never hurt you. when you love someone you show you love them, not with words but with actions. show you they care, that you are important to them. From experience I have learnt that words mean nothing. you love someone, prove it
Jessamine
Just A fact me and Dark the way we said it or type in this chat Todd is not rude or try to be offensive. Just to clear things out.
mary
@Jo exactly! it's almost textbook. The longer he continues to get his ego fed, he'll continue to disrespect her. either he needs a therapist or someone to teach him that he isn't that important.
Eduardo
You know guys, LOVE is a very big thing to deal with. It's a thing that confuses everybody, a great topic for argument. I think the best way to deal with your problem is to know yourself.We can't keep on advising you like you should do this and that or believe this or that or follow this or that.
Dark
We perceive things differently, it's all clear. I'm not offending anyone in here. I'm sorry for my words. That's just how things go with my head. I'm not even good in love.
Dark
I agree. Short tempered people are evey where. I'm Short-tempered. People change when they want to. So, it could me a minute - days to years and they'll either change, or not. but the conclusion comes down to you both. Not how anyone ones judging the relationship.
Gianni

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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