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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe how genetics and environment affect intelligence
  • Explain the relationship between IQ scores and socioeconomic status
  • Describe the difference between a learning disability and a developmental disorder

A young girl, born of teenage parents, lives with her grandmother in rural Mississippi. They are poor—in serious poverty—but they do their best to get by with what they have. She learns to read when she is just 3 years old. As she grows older, she longs to live with her mother, who now resides in Wisconsin. She moves there at the age of 6 years. At 9 years of age, she is raped. During the next several years, several different male relatives repeatedly molest her. Her life unravels. She turns to drugs and sex to fill the deep, lonely void inside her. Her mother then sends her to Nashville to live with her father, who imposes strict behavioral expectations upon her, and over time, her wild life settles once again. She begins to experience success in school, and at 19 years old, becomes the youngest and first African-American female news anchor (“Dates and Events,” n.d.). The woman—Oprah Winfrey—goes on to become a media giant known for both her intelligence and her empathy.

High intelligence: nature or nurture?

Where does high intelligence come from? Some researchers believe that intelligence is a trait inherited from a person’s parents. Scientists who research this topic typically use twin studies to determine the heritability of intelligence. The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart is one of the most well-known twin studies. In this investigation, researchers found that identical twins raised together and identical twins raised apart exhibit a higher correlation between their IQ scores than siblings or fraternal twins raised together (Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal,&Tellegen, 1990). The findings from this study reveal a genetic component to intelligence ( [link] ). At the same time, other psychologists believe that intelligence is shaped by a child’s developmental environment. If parents were to provide their children with intellectual stimuli from before they are born, it is likely that they would absorb the benefits of that stimulation, and it would be reflected in intelligence levels.

A chart shows correlations of IQs for people of varying relationships. The bottom is labeled “Percent IQ Correlation” and the left side is labeled “Relationship.” The percent IQ Correlation for relationships where no genes are shared, including adoptive parent-child pairs, similarly aged unrelated children raised together, and adoptive siblings are around 21 percent, 30 percent, and 32 percent, respectively. The percent IQ Correlation for relationships where 25 percent of genes are shared, as in half-siblings, is around 33 percent. The percent IQ Correlation for relationships where 50 percent of genes are shared, including parent-children pairs, and fraternal twins raised together, are roughly 44 percent and 62 percent, respectively. A relationship where 100 percent of genes are shared, as in identical twins raised apart, results in a nearly 80 percent IQ correlation.
The correlations of IQs of unrelated versus related persons reared apart or together suggest a genetic component to intelligence.

The reality is that aspects of each idea are probably correct. In fact, one study suggests that although genetics seem to be in control of the level of intelligence, the environmental influences provide both stability and change to trigger manifestation of cognitive abilities (Bartels, Rietveld, Van Baal,&Boomsma, 2002). Certainly, there are behaviors that support the development of intelligence, but the genetic component of high intelligence should not be ignored. As with all heritable traits, however, it is not always possible to isolate how and when high intelligence is passed on to the next generation.

Questions & Answers

please whats the answer
Fortune Reply
answer to what?
Gaunt
what is mean by what?
Mohammad
why they named it psychology
zayn Reply
telll me
ABDUL
the word "psychology" comes from the Greek words "psyche" meaning life and "logos" meaning "explanation".
Soma
Psyche, in Greek mythology was a goddess who comes to represent the human soul's triumph over the misfortunes of life. The term psychology was coined. Psyche, meaning soul or mind and the root "ology" meaning the study of. I hope this helped.
JC
well done
ABDUL
what is chunking
Ritika Reply
Chunking is a process by which individual pieces of an information set are broken down and then grouped together in a meaningful whole.
Azquan
chunking is to information as syllabus is to word
ABDUL
what dose it means, operant and classic conditioning in short words?
Mikiyas Reply
scientific method, critical thinking.
jeddy Reply
the dealings with the thought process and human behavior.
jeddy
for acquiring knowledge by experimentation.
jeddy
study scientific study of mind and behavior.
jeddy
scientific study of the human mind and behavior.
jeddy
hey jeddy I have question s for you
Yussuf
hi what is behavioralism ?
jusem
what is psychology..?
Ania
the science of mental life.
Mikiyas
it focuses on understanding and modifying human behaviour
ABDUL
because emotion can't be measured.
marikrizz Reply
only by the person having the emotion.
Jason
it is subjective feeling
suman
only placed within levels of itself
Teena
and accepted as extended or beginning versions of emotions that are completely free of restrictions
Teena
anyone know, (2+2)/2
start
Emotions can't be measured, but they can be recognized. To be able to recognize certain characteristics that'll give me an idea about an individual's state of mind.
jeddy
any one knows (2+2)/2
start
it is 6
suman
anyone (2+2)/2
start
2
fadil
😂
suman
then more then just recognize but to comprehend the emotions being observed separating your own emotions from the situation currently in.. and rationally gaging the environment.. while then pulling each possible emotional vibe or energy exerted from the human being observed
Teena
How does learning influence behaviour
Tumpa Reply
our choice of study molds us and encourages us to practice what we learn. social structure also changes behavior based on the environment and peers. how we learn can be experimental as not everyone lesrns the same. some are more of a hands-on absorber, whereas others may learn better from listening
A confidence from personal knowledge. Not from having been taugbt. knowledge that you learned what was taught.
jeddy
life is choice, be ready for the best and be prepare for what yet to come in your way(Destiny)
Wayne
what is development
Momna Reply
In what Context are you referring to
Hassan
the progression/degression/growth of something. it is interpreted most commonly in psychology as how something is created or formed. ex: When did you develop an interest in psychology?
when refering to physical, cognitive, and social development, these types of development are determined by many circumstances. such as demographics, biology, and personality/character
it is the apprehensions fluency based by the process of configurations to a design based on product/witness series noticeboards to note the stats on order to retail agreements on stated series order.
Kay
Evolving
jeddy
I'm on my first year of a psychology course, is there anything I should know? anything you wished you knew when you just started psychology ? because I feel like I'm walking into all of this blindly
Lia Reply
hello
GOPAL
I feel exactly the same. Just about to start Psychology and Criminology. feeling slightly nervous 🙈
Sarah
and everything is online
Lia
only for a few weeks I believe. Unless I have read it wrong. I believe that they will try and filter everyone in.
Sarah
it's different for every country
Lia
hi
GOPAL
I start 9/14. Online as well.
LaQuisha
I know very little about Psychology
GOPAL
which area are you specialising in
Elle
yeah, everthing your just know, that psychology is everthing come out with, mind, behavior and emotion. and believe, once you study it, you will understand, wjy people act like that.
EDWARD
Don't be in the class with pre notions.. yh
ABDUL
after a successful job interview,Mr.Abhishek felt relaxed and calm,he stopped sweating and felt hungry,which part of his nervous system was activated
Babaljeet Reply
Hypothalamus
Words
what is the Borysenko model and why is it important?
Sarah
It explains the link between stress and diseases ie.. How long term stress on the mind or body can lead to chronic migraines, ulcers, depression...
Jennifer
I understand there is a link between stress and illness and disease. that when you are in high-stress situations for prolonged periods of time that the brain releases an abundance of stress hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and aldosterone. idk anymore than that.
Sarah
what is the strees anger
Divya
what is difference between illness and disease
Umair
anyone knows (2+2)/2
start
Hy everybody any one who can help me to understand the concept of Structuralism in easy words?
sabiha Reply
If you really considered looking into yourself find the reason of the possibilities or the environment and atmosphere in which you're placed with or without choice in voluntary or involuntary from birth to now, and also consider all existential extensions of yourself including spiritual recognition.
Darling
? and compare them to social,judicial, learned events,experiences, influences and dive into there branches? somehow reflects our mechanic motivations and has an effect on who we are and what we represent. ?😲
Darling
critical evaluation on attitude change and formation those that even exist
COMORDOR
who is considered of a father of psychology
Satyendra Reply
Freud
Lithemba
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason.
David
wundt
Namrata
Wundt
Disha
wundt
NishaOfficial
wundt
Naheed
wundt
Jasmine
id say freud but wundt continued his work. let's face it without freud there wouldn't be a psychology practices
Michelle
Freud is considered as the father of Psychoanalysis not psychology
Indefatigable
technically Freud would be the father of psychology because he discovered the id ego and super ego
Bryce
Its kind of a loaded question. There are many early greats in psychology each having their own theories and views. I think it is more of a collective of ideals that make up our current view and understanding of psychology.
Jason
I agree with you Jason. there are Amazing psychologist back then that made the foundation for the field of psychology
Bryce
Wilhelm Winston ryt
Faazi
Wundt
Waris
i agree to you Jason
Welli
is there any name for the fear of dying painfully? is it the same as thanatophobia?
Matthew Reply
hello matthew i am new
Barbara
who is reinhart
Hannah Reply
hello, why are you asking me this?
She
hello, how are you?
Corey
hey Corey, all fine, how are you doing?
She
Hello everyone
Indefatigable
hello
Hannah
Which specialization in psychology interest you? why?
Ailyn
hello, hannah, I'm fine thanks and how are you?
Corey
or she
Corey
hello hannah and corey
Barbara
What makes a personal quality part of someone's personality?
that's a great question 🤔
Love

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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