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It should be pointed out that some reviews of the literature challenge this finding, suggesting that sleep deprivation that is not limited to REM sleep is just as effective or more effective at alleviating depressive symptoms among some patients suffering from depression. In either case, why sleep deprivation improves the mood of some patients is not entirely understood (Giedke&Schwärzler, 2002). Recently, however, some have suggested that sleep deprivation might change emotional processing so that various stimuli are more likely to be perceived as positive in nature (Gujar, Yoo, Hu,&Walker, 2011). The hypnogram below ( [link] ) shows a person’s passage through the stages of sleep.

This is a hypnogram showing the transitions of the sleep cycle during a typical eight hour period of sleep. During the first hour, the person goes through stages 1,2,3 and ends at 4. In the second hour, sleep oscillates between 3 and 4 before attaining a 30-minute period of REM sleep. The third hour follows the same pattern as the second, but ends with a brief awake period. The fourth hour follows a similar pattern as the third, with a slightly longer REM stage. In the fifth hour, stages 3 and 4 are no longer reached. The sleep stages are fluctuating from 2, to 1, to REM, to awake, and then they repeat with shortening intervals until the end of the eighth hour when the person awakens.
A hypnogram is a diagram of the stages of sleep as they occur during a period of sleep. This hypnogram illustrates how an individual moves through the various stages of sleep.

Dreams

The meaning of dreams varies across different cultures and periods of time. By the late 19th century, German psychiatrist Sigmund Freud had become convinced that dreams represented an opportunity to gain access to the unconscious. By analyzing dreams, Freud thought people could increase self-awareness and gain valuable insight to help them deal with the problems they faced in their lives. Freud made distinctions between the manifest content and the latent content of dreams. Manifest content is the actual content, or storyline, of a dream. Latent content , on the other hand, refers to the hidden meaning of a dream. For instance, if a woman dreams about being chased by a snake, Freud might have argued that this represents the woman’s fear of sexual intimacy, with the snake serving as a symbol of a man’s penis.

Freud was not the only theorist to focus on the content of dreams. The 20th century Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung believed that dreams allowed us to tap into the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious    , as described by Jung , is a theoretical repository of information he believed to be shared by everyone. According to Jung, certain symbols in dreams reflected universal archetypes with meanings that are similar for all people regardless of culture or location.

The sleep and dreaming researcher Rosalind Cartwright, however, believes that dreams simply reflect life events that are important to the dreamer. Unlike Freud and Jung, Cartwright’s ideas about dreaming have found empirical support. For example, she and her colleagues published a study in which women going through divorce were asked several times over a five month period to report the degree to which their former spouses were on their minds. These same women were awakened during REM sleep in order to provide a detailed account of their dream content. There was a significant positive correlation between the degree to which women thought about their former spouses during waking hours and the number of times their former spouses appeared as characters in their dreams (Cartwright, Agargun, Kirkby,&Friedman, 2006). Recent research (Horikawa, Tamaki, Miyawaki,&Kamitani, 2013) has uncovered new techniques by which researchers may effectively detect and classify the visual images that occur during dreaming by using fMRI for neural measurement of brain activity patterns, opening the way for additional research in this area.

Recently, neuroscientists have also become interested in understanding why we dream. For example, Hobson (2009) suggests that dreaming may represent a state of protoconsciousness. In other words, dreaming involves constructing a virtual reality in our heads that we might use to help us during wakefulness. Among a variety of neurobiological evidence, John Hobson cites research on lucid dreams as an opportunity to better understand dreaming in general. Lucid dreams are dreams in which certain aspects of wakefulness are maintained during a dream state. In a lucid dream, a person becomes aware of the fact that they are dreaming, and as such, they can control the dream’s content (LaBerge, 1990).

Summary

The different stages of sleep are characterized by the patterns of brain waves associated with each stage. As a person transitions from being awake to falling asleep, alpha waves are replaced by theta waves. Sleep spindles and K-complexes emerge in stage 2 sleep. Stage 3 and stage 4 are described as slow-wave sleep that is marked by a predominance of delta waves. REM sleep involves rapid movements of the eyes, paralysis of voluntary muscles, and dreaming. Both NREM and REM sleep appear to play important roles in learning and memory. Dreams may represent life events that are important to the dreamer. Alternatively, dreaming may represent a state of protoconsciousness, or a virtual reality, in the mind that helps a person during consciousness.

Personal application question

Researchers believe that one important function of sleep is to facilitate learning and memory. How does knowing this help you in your college studies? What changes could you make to your study and sleep habits to maximize your mastery of the material covered in class?

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Questions & Answers

To study Abnormal Psychology means, to study mainly the nature of
Baddo Reply
abnormal psychology? can you explain please?
la
abnormal, this branch of psychology typically deals with behavior in a clinical context.
pakki
yo
Baddo
To study Abnormal Psychology means, to study mainly the nature of 1). Conscious Mind 2). Unconscious Mind 3). Subconscious Mind 4). Normal Mind
pakki
yo
Kylee
abnormal psychology- is the scientific study of Psychological disorders and their treatments
utkarsh
Utkarsh Verma can you help me pass out my exams? tomorrom
Baddo
10 - 11 MCQ test can you all or some help? the only subject I'm weak in is psychology
Baddo
which branch of psychology is the test on?
pakki
How Abnormal Behavior is Defined While it may seem that the definition of “abnormal” indicates a behavior that is considered outside of the human norm, it is actually a much slipperier slope. Therefore, abnormal psychology takes on the task of scientifically studying and classifying human behaviors
Anye
Yo
Monica
What is the role of psychology in the development of therapies for circadian rhythm disorders?
wazir
please I wish to find out how difficult/easy it is, for someone with a bachelor degree in philosophy to continue with masters and doctoral in psychology, specifically, I-O psychology.
Anye
do the individuals know that they are being researched on? and why does anyone speak up regarding the matter? is it "don't ask, don't tell" policy?
Stepphun Reply
examine any 5 perceptual principals of organization
kundai Reply
Is it possible for a child to be schizophrenic?
Esther Reply
yes. early onset of schizophrenia starts at 13 to 18. very rare but possible.
Kristel
Good question
Mulder
It's uncommon for children to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
pakki
what is the role of psychology in the development of therapies for circadian rhythm disorders?
wazir
is there a difference between age and romantic attachment style?
Alysha Reply
I don't think so. Well, not always. Certain things should be timeless.
Know
I'm 48 & he's 26 ...so we shall see?
Tanya
in my opinion if you both are comfortable with each other then definitely age is nothing but a number but then also there will be little difference in the cognition due to age
utkarsh
yes Utkarsh.I agree with you.We call it as generation gap. But there can be exceptions also...
Shailaja
yes generation gap can affect the relationship but this totally depends on the couple that how they settle up with each other
utkarsh
that is true, balance is needed. I spent a long time with an older man and I was more his child than his partner. power struggles are hard in relationships with generational gaps
Ashley
I think all it all depends on your comfort or braveness and attitude toward life, then age is just numbers.
Sujeet
new perspective n ones mindset towards life plays an important role... if the change is for gud.. go-ahead
Smitha
Yes romantic attachment styles change with age if that's what you are asking. here is where you can read more about it ***google.com/amp/s/qz.com/1206940/attachment-style-changes-with-age/amp/
krish
can empirical research be performed on people being diagnosed or people who have borderline personality disorder?
Stepphun Reply
yes it can
Angela
***pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3711874/
Angela
thank you for the feedback
Stepphun
👍
Angela
yes?
Stepphun
discuss the three models of positional coding in working memory citing examples.Please help me with points to this question
jane Reply
can you clear me up a doubt that for to become a psychriatist what process are needed
Mimi Reply
What are the vocational choices for women in pakistan also discuss its aims and objectives.
Malik Reply
I want to research on Egocentrism and Autistic thinking on myself.
RAVI Reply
I want to research on Egocentrism and Autistic thinking on myself. Have you any suggestion for me?
RAVI
I want to research on Egocentrism and Autistic thinking on myself. Have you any suggestion for me?
RAVI
why do you think they correlate?
James
what is the role of psychology in the development of therapies for circadian rhythm?
wazir
what is Egocentrism
Ishfaq
External goal that have the capacity to motivate behaviour
Haider Reply
Reinforcements and Punishments
Khyzar
indeed! but positive punishment if I may add
Angela
hi. i am a student of B.A. Psychology (major), i wanted to enquire as to which textbook would be most informative on 'Biopsychology' ?
Bhargavi
Hey, I'm currently a BS Psychology major and I'd like to recommend the 10th Edition Biological Psychology book by Kalat
Ayessa
thanks, it really means a lot😀
Bhargavi
You're welcome.
Ayessa
what is logical atomism
Koshivani
what is HMC found in UK and US in 1915
Samu Reply
List five branches of psychology
Faith Reply
clinical psychology social psychology educational psychology experimental psychology neurological psychology behavioural psychology criminal psychology industrial psychology
Nazish
I am a older retired person who has always found psychology interesting I am teaching myself with information that I find online textbooks etc is there any advice that you can give me to help me thank you
Brenda
can anyone explain Shiffrin and Schneider experiment of controlled and automatic human information?
AKSHATA Reply
If psyche means soul, why doesn't psychology mean "the scientific study of the soul"?
Emmanuel Reply
You have a point
Felix
psychology is systematic study of human behavior
AKSHATA
agree with u psyche means study of Soul.. but Psychology is psych not psyche. since term psych means study of behaviour n ology means knowledge, hence Psychology means study of one's behaviour
Smitha
Isn't this because of an escape from the fact that the soul cannot be measured?
Emmanuel
Psyche means soul and initially Psychology ment the study or science of soul only but we don't have any evidence regarding soul .. so a lot of scientists , psychologists don't agree with this definition since they won't be able to study the soul scientifically
Debapriya
Thus , now a more agreed upon definition of Psychology is that its the study of mind and behaviour.
Debapriya
Okay. Thank you for your explanation.
Emmanuel
:)
Debapriya

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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