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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of development across a lifespan. Developmental psychologists are interested in processes related to physical maturation. However, their focus is not limited to the physical changes associated with aging, as they also focus on changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, social behavior, and other psychological attributes.

Early developmental psychologists focused primarily on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood, providing enormous insight into the differences in physical, cognitive, and social capacities that exist between very young children and adults. For instance, research by Jean Piaget ( [link] ) demonstrated that very young children do not demonstrate object permanence. Object permanence refers to the understanding that physical things continue to exist, even if they are hidden from us. If you were to show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, very young infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. The age at which object permanence is achieved is somewhat controversial (Munakata, McClelland, Johnson, and Siegler, 1997).

A photograph shows Jean Piaget.
Jean Piaget is famous for his theories regarding changes in cognitive ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.

While Piaget was focused on cognitive changes during infancy and childhood as we move to adulthood, there is an increasing interest in extending research into the changes that occur much later in life. This may be reflective of changing population demographics of developed nations as a whole. As more and more people live longer lives, the number of people of advanced age will continue to increase. Indeed, it is estimated that there were just over 40 million people aged 65 or older living in the United States in 2010. However, by 2020, this number is expected to increase to about 55 million. By the year 2050, it is estimated that nearly 90 million people in this country will be 65 or older (Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).

Personality psychology

Personality psychology focuses on patterns of thoughts and behaviors that make each individual unique. Several individuals (e.g., Freud and Maslow) that we have already discussed in our historical overview of psychology, and the American psychologist Gordon Allport, contributed to early theories of personality. These early theorists attempted to explain how an individual’s personality develops from his or her given perspective. For example, Freud proposed that personality arose as conflicts between the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind were carried out over the lifespan. Specifically, Freud theorized that an individual went through various psychosexual stages of development. According to Freud, adult personality would result from the resolution of various conflicts that centered on the migration of erogenous (or sexual pleasure-producing) zones from the oral (mouth) to the anus to the phallus to the genitals. Like many of Freud’s theories, this particular idea was controversial and did not lend itself to experimental tests (Person, 1980).

Questions & Answers

i can't see ur whole line
Neetu Reply
tap 'more" to see the whole paragraph
Milky
how to join conversation
Neetu Reply
A square is given at the end ,,Tap the Square and start Conversation....
Milky
what is the difference between place theory and time theory
Neetu Reply
you
abdul
place theory is a theory of hearing that sates that our perception of sound depends upon from where each component frequency produces vibration...
Milky
what is saturation?
Neetu Reply
unable To hold or contain any more e.g The syrup is saturated you can't add further sugar to it...
Milky
what is Conscious ,Subconscious and Unconscious?
Milky
what is Biopsychology
Shalomkegeta Reply
?
tom
yes
Shalomkegeta
hey
N_Young
I'm so sorry I'm late I've been really busy. okay let's get started what are you all having trouble with in this class
Reyna
Study of the body, how it works and how why...?
tom
as far I know , psychobiology or biopsychology is the study of the behavior using biological basis... slightly different from neuroscience... remark: I'm not a professional, its just my opinion according my studies
Josue
Hey, i just got transferred to psychology and i am a bit lost because i resumed late. i need help on how to catch up and also how i do i read and understand and also pass my exam. Exam is in 45 days.
Venturah
hey. can you tell more about psychology studies? and math in psychology?
Gabriel
hi
Mercy
hello
Lieutenant
Hello Mercy
Syed
is there anyone?
Lieutenant
hi
James
hi!! How are?
Milky
Fine
Syed
anyone?
Lieutenant
anyonnne
Lieutenant
lots of good people here are...
Milky
yes
Syed
its science
abdul
it's Science) what this suppose to mean?
Milky
its meaning also all covered
abdul
okay.......
Milky
IS THIS A CHAT ROOM FOR ONLINE CONSULTING
Shadow
For everything relating to psychology I think. Is it?
Daniela
Related*
Daniela
yes
abdul
i need finance
abdul
Abdul Latheff people are here to learn sth from each other ,,,Its like learning Institution Okay please Behave like an educated man...
Milky
I gave my opinion yesterday... I don't know if it helped
Josue
my definition about biopsychology...
Josue
what is mind?
Milky Reply
Human body is an organisation which is owned by you. Mind is CEO of that organisation which is responsible for running all the affairs as per your desire and directive.
SS
Mind is how you control it
SS
OK,Thanks for sharing your ideas...
Milky
Mind is divided into three elements what are these three?
Milky
Conscious, unconscious and sub conscious
tom
will define it ,Tom?
Milky
@ Tom Thornton, I agree with conscious and subconscious as elements of mind, but unconscious is a state of brain as an organ, where mind has no power over it, while conscious and subconscious are both controlled by it. excuse me if I am wrong.
Bora
Conscious is the everyday stuff like brushing your teeth, getting dressed, knowing how to do things without needing to be shown
tom
Unconscious is the stuff you don't know yet, the unknown side of the brain
tom
Subconscious is the stuff you know but don't know you know
tom
Hey I'm not knocking it, this is just my input wrong or right, it's just as I understand it?
tom
@ bora brigjaj how very interesting approach. Where or how did you get it? Any book or article you can recommend to dig more into it?
Daniela
okay !!! thanks Tom for sharing your ideas with your little brother....
Milky
according with the neuroscience the unconscious is the part which ocurr automatically (like brushing our teeth -we don't pay attention to every little movement, we just do it-) its like an automatic pilot. on the other side the conscious is when we are aware about the facts (e.g., we are going to..
Josue
thanks Josue.....
Milky
haha Subconscious remains .....
Milky
...learn how to drive, we are paying attention to every detail..the first times is difficult, but when we practice the unconscious take charge and afterwards we do it automatically). there are another definition about this topics (the definition given by Sigmund Freud , I think there is no longer...
Josue
...used, don't know for sure) in these days there are a lot of controversy in the psychology about this... I prefer the neuroscience definition... what do you guys think (I have a lot of literature about that..if you guys want). give me your feedback please ;)
Josue
jaja you're right milky... it remains
Josue
sending lot of prayers to my Elder Brother who shares their invaluable ideas with their little brothers ,so that can understand and relate examples from every day life...
Milky
It will be honour for U Josue to share your ideas with persons who don't really know and because of u and persons like u in this group they will learn sth.. Great achievement Brothers😃😎
Milky
in the new age studies the term unconscious is used (no longer subconscious) , on older ages (Freud, there are three definitions)
Josue
Just a final words: I think milky with this question have opened a door...in the new age studies the mind no longer exists (we all know the history of this duality opened by René Descartes), nowadays the neuroscience is giving a lot of scientific information
Josue
the mind is just an illusion (there is no ghost or something related, they stated there is no mind ..just processes on the brain. there is no duality) ...then what happen with psychology?
Josue
Hhmmm .....Josue have u done any course in psychology ,,,I mean whats your educational background bro?
Milky
if there is no mind..just the brain and inner workings , the psychology is redundant? ... perhaps the answer is no, the psychology and the neuroscience can coexist..even be complementary fields, there is a lot of reasons but I don't want to bore everyone... but this is a exceptional question...
Josue
okay!!! got the idea....Bro Josue
Milky
I am studying psychology at the university, but a lot of my knowledge I am doing it by my own research... my principal background is the body language.. afterwards I began to study the branches of the body language... and here I am..
Josue
that's Good and we are lucky to have a Psychologist around us😃😃
Milky
het
gloria
wat is psychology
gloria
psychology is relationship between mental processed and it's effects on behaviour...
Milky
* Processes
Milky
what are the methods of psychology
gloria
Gloria there are a lot of methods here, example: case studies, interviews, observational study...and the list keep going on...I am not really sure if this was the answer you were looking for..
Josue
there are experimental methods i.e lab experiments and Non Experimental methods as Josue Defined earlier...
Milky
Gloria!!!! Are u getting?
Milky
good Night ,,,,,Guys ,,, sweet dreams😴😴
Milky
same to u
gloria
sweet REM-NREM sleep jajaja
Josue
sorry Rosue but I cant Get the meaning of JaJa ...OOhh can u speak Spanish also?
Milky
Si exactamente
Josue
Bueno ,,,Josue
Milky
guys me I just understand English plz wants is this language
gloria
Gloria you from Kenya ?
samuel
no Zambia kitwe
gloria
n
abdul
wat do u mean I understand English and bemba
gloria
Gloria inbox me
samuel
okay Gloria will talk in English Onward in conversation....
Milky
me I want to know more about English
aimie
what is understanding self mean
aimie
to gain something personal to fulfill personal desire
Sarah
what is betrayal then
Sarah
how do you distinguish between being mean and being honest
Sarah
Hi my friends.. I think this is a psychology forum? or can we ask about another topics? I also study mathematics, pharmaceutical chemistry, hypnosis, persuasion, social engineering... we surely have a great time..
Josue
being honest is totally different from being mean. being honest may express being mean. but being mean may use the methods of ditching, flattering, saying that m being honest and many others.
Deepak
what is the psychology-specific word for a disorder that has one or more additional disorders attached to it? for example: anorexia nervosa is typically accompanied with anxiety, depression, personality disorders, etc. I know their is a specific word that describes the multitude of disorders.
Eduardo Reply
Comorbidity? ***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comorbidity
Angel
nooo 😭 it's close though. thanks :) I remember hearing it in an article last year and it's been killing me since
Eduardo
actually, it is the exact word now that i saw the exact meaning on google 😁😁😁 thank you so much
Eduardo
I would say it is "syndrome" and it is defined as a number of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated to each other. I know that depression is an illness rather that has many signs and symptoms.
Bora
Some disorders are comorbid with certain Conditions... Not necessarily a syndrome, just comorbidity
George
comorbid condition
Kayla
what does empirical mean
James Reply
when some is based on experiment and observation
Zainab
psychology or psychological?
Onyedikachi Reply
what do you wanna know?
hamna
what does empirical mean
James
not to be that person but it took me about 2 seconds to pull up the google definition, which is "based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic."
Maddy
what is psychological
Leo Reply
What is Motivation and types of motivation ? (5 marks)
Neha Reply
theories about motivation ?( in more simpler way but about 10marks)
Neha
motivation is the emotional drive that influence an organism to do an activity be it positive or negative . it could be an inner drive (intrinsic) or an external drive which is known as extrinsic drive , for example many people do an activity due to the reward they will benefit.
HARRISON
differences between growth and development
Chris Reply
yes
Isah
what is psychology
Isah
1. growth is "concrete". ex. your height and weight 2. development is "abstract". ex. your aptitude and intelligence
King
psychology is d scientific study of human and animal behavior with their mental processes
Zainab
In talking about growth and intelligence, does anyone know about the Vineland test. How is the test scores and calculated? Thanks.
Janel
How is the test scores and calculated?
Janel
scored and calculated***
Janel
What is social psychology?
onoja Reply
How you deal with the society and network around you, how that will effect you as a person mentally going forward
tom
I like that
Chelsea
I agree 100%
Chelsea
How do I learn my personality traits?
Heidi Reply
I would like to try your quizzes
Heidi
a good way is to take the ocean test
Gonzalo
just search it online
Gonzalo
what is homeostasis?
Robin Reply
homeo meaning similar, stasis meaning a period or state of inactivity or equilibrium
juan
you could have googled that, though
juan

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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