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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of development across a lifespan. Developmental psychologists are interested in processes related to physical maturation. However, their focus is not limited to the physical changes associated with aging, as they also focus on changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, social behavior, and other psychological attributes.

Early developmental psychologists focused primarily on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood, providing enormous insight into the differences in physical, cognitive, and social capacities that exist between very young children and adults. For instance, research by Jean Piaget ( [link] ) demonstrated that very young children do not demonstrate object permanence. Object permanence refers to the understanding that physical things continue to exist, even if they are hidden from us. If you were to show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, very young infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. The age at which object permanence is achieved is somewhat controversial (Munakata, McClelland, Johnson, and Siegler, 1997).

A photograph shows Jean Piaget.
Jean Piaget is famous for his theories regarding changes in cognitive ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.

While Piaget was focused on cognitive changes during infancy and childhood as we move to adulthood, there is an increasing interest in extending research into the changes that occur much later in life. This may be reflective of changing population demographics of developed nations as a whole. As more and more people live longer lives, the number of people of advanced age will continue to increase. Indeed, it is estimated that there were just over 40 million people aged 65 or older living in the United States in 2010. However, by 2020, this number is expected to increase to about 55 million. By the year 2050, it is estimated that nearly 90 million people in this country will be 65 or older (Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).

Personality psychology

Personality psychology focuses on patterns of thoughts and behaviors that make each individual unique. Several individuals (e.g., Freud and Maslow) that we have already discussed in our historical overview of psychology, and the American psychologist Gordon Allport, contributed to early theories of personality. These early theorists attempted to explain how an individual’s personality develops from his or her given perspective. For example, Freud proposed that personality arose as conflicts between the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind were carried out over the lifespan. Specifically, Freud theorized that an individual went through various psychosexual stages of development. According to Freud, adult personality would result from the resolution of various conflicts that centered on the migration of erogenous (or sexual pleasure-producing) zones from the oral (mouth) to the anus to the phallus to the genitals. Like many of Freud’s theories, this particular idea was controversial and did not lend itself to experimental tests (Person, 1980).

Questions & Answers

whats the topic? be i just downloaded this app and trying to figure it out.
Roxanna Reply
is this your begining in psychology ?
KhaLid
This is my beginning in psychology
Junaid
yes please ?
KhaLid
actully i need help related psychology concpt
salma
I am new to psychology
Dom
I am new here any friend please?
Teben Reply
I'm new too, hello friend
Mark
i am also new here
Maliha
i'm new three😂
Mohammad
i'm new three😂
Mohammad
Me too....How you all doing?
Junaid
I good thank you, just in a government lockdown, and now with no job bit searching for a new one in something on the global digital platform would be nice a start to a new job career, from turning a hobby into a new career.
Mark
I am retrospectively new here 😂😂😂😂 Hey everyone !
KhaLid
hi
sayali
Hi Im new for this chat!
Shyam
Let me introduce myself
Shyam
That's great *MARK* I'm also bit searching for a job on digital marketing
Shyam
Hello everyone...
salma
w asalam
salma
i m good u say how r u
salma
Psychology
salma
yes
Bikram
if anyone needs any concepts about psychology lemme know !
KhaLid
khalid .. You r psychologist?
salma
I am new new here too
Dom
certainly Salma .....
KhaLid
go ahead ... how can I help you?
KhaLid
hi..i need help with my assignment..i need 3 written role plays and each role play i need to use 2 different counseling therapies.
Ashital Reply
why they didn't investigate another person?
NFAK Reply
?
Leuka
?
Cary
be aware your life and others life's It is humanity
muhammad
what is the topic?
paschal
why do people say that girls are more emotional than boys
Soohie Reply
***goodtherapy.org/blog/do-boys-and-girls-express-emotions-differently-1226122?fbclid=IwAR1qdt09vHmDoMHzkoFP8MBRr8nocv9P_I3zluC4rpQ7yo0wO7wVyFwQiB4
Sarah
thanks
NishaOfficial
no problem
Sarah
Wilhem Wundt's introspection technique with his own strict rules for the experiment. Is the technique able to recognize symptoms of mental illnesses, like schizophrenia or dementia for example, or is it only applicable to a certain degree? If so, what is the extent of this technique he used?
Shilla Reply
Yes
Mehmood
Oh, so, yes it can recognize mental illness symptoms?
Shilla
Pls I want to study psychology in higher education but am a bit confused between educational psychology and social psychology which is better?
Odey
confused about what these are two particular fields of psychology tell me odey in which you are interested ?
KhaLid
***differencebetween.com/difference-between-psychology-and-vs-social-psychology/
Sarah
psychology deals with mental processes and behavior in an individual while social psychology deals with society and their influence on an individual
Sarah
what about cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience?
Mehmood
Am interested studying social psychology bt I dnt knw the one that is better
Odey
I can't see the full message u want to know about cognitive psychology and cognitive what was the last part
Sarah
cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience
Mehmood
Cognitive psychology is more focused on information processing and behavior. Cognitive neuroscience studies the underlying biology of information processing and behavior.
Sarah
Cognitive neuroscience overlaps with cognitive psychology, and focuses on the neural substrates of mental processes and their behavioral manifestations.
Sarah
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), cognitive psychology is the “study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking.” As a scientific study of mind and mental functioning, the core focus of modern cognitive psych
Sarah
***bestpsychologydegrees.com/faq/what-is-cognitive-psychology/
Sarah
I'm currently in college studying for my BA in Science of Psychology which is General Psychology
Sarah
thanks Sarah. can a psychologist be a cognitive neuroscientist? or this domain is out of reach from psychologist s
Mehmood
Odey have u looked into the different types of social psychology and what each of them are?
Sarah
cognitive neuroscientists all study psychology biology neurologist chemistry and philosophy. they typically have training in at least one of these disciplines and can work in a variety of roles, from conducting brain research to helping therapy clients overcome mental illness.
Sarah
so I would say yes a psychologist can be a neuroscientist after furthering their education more
Sarah
Pls Sarah, if u can help me wit any material on the difference I will rili appreciate, we find it difficult to get good psychology material in my country
Odey
yes Sarah. it seems it is an interdisciplinary field of study. I don't know whether most of th universities will provide education in cognitive neuroscience. it seems so expensive and laborious to me. what do you think
Mehmood
yes Sarah. it seems it is an interdisciplinary field of study. I don't know whether most of th universities will provide education in cognitive neuroscience. it seems so expensive and laborious to me. what do you think
Mehmood
***careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-cognitive-neuroscientist
Sarah
Odey here is a link on social psychology and their different types for you to explore ***bestselling.com/research-areas-in-social-psychology-2795913
Sarah
nobody wants to help answer and explain the question I had? Besides a simple yes? And you guys went on with a different discussion here -_- Thank you very much
Shilla
reask your question again and I'm sorry
Sarah
Wilhem Wundt's introspection technique with his own strict rules for the experiment. Is the technique able to recognize symptoms of mental illnesses, like schizophrenia or dementia for example, or is it only applicable to a certain degree? If so, what is the extent of this technique he used?
Shilla
It's okay, forgiven 😂
Shilla
I have to look in my text for that I havent gotten there yet
Sarah
thank you
Sarah
I'm still looking i hope someone else can help. Forgive me?
Sarah
hey guys can anybody provide me.notes regarding indian psychology and how it changes according to time
nitesh
you mean history of indian psychology?
PUSHPITA
yes would be interesting... as individual psychology is influenced by socialization too... my opinion regards
Neelkanth
What explanation will you give to a student  who has challenges with retrieving information from memory? 
Yaa Reply
Memories of events or items tend to be recalled in the same order in which they were experienced, so by thinking through a list or series of events.
Raluca
I personally study using music so when I need to remember what I'm doing I have to use the same playlist
Sarah
Ohk thanks
Yaa
you're welc5
Sarah
welcome
Sarah
How is everyone doing
Lotegeluaki Reply
good.
Cathleen
good
Flora
I didn't know it had this feature. Good, thanks for asking.
Cheriyan
getting better thanks ... how are you ?
Jim
Oh hey
Nikki
Hmm
Nikki
Doing well, thank you!
Amanda
could someone talk about the 4th level of maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid. thanks
Neelkanth
@Neelkanth , The fourth level depicts self worth. It basically means pride enters one's life later on. Honestly, I don't confirm to the hierarchy much.
Zoya
An example, this a drastic example, : Making an 11 year old kid that has gone through basic conditioning beg for his/her life may be easy when you put a gun to their head.
Zoya
However, when you do so to a man in his late 30's to 40's who has also gone through the same conditioning in his childhood, it may be more difficult to make him beg. This is because he has earned a reputation. Went up the hierarchy
Zoya
is there anyone L&D professional here
Abhishek
Abhishek yes go ahead !
KhaLid
Great
Abhishek
when young children speak in short phrases using verbs and nouns,what it is referred to
Simran Reply
how old? generally that's how kids talk isn't it?
Ezra
especially shy ones
Ezra
slang
Emma
what are the social psychology concepts
MICOT Reply
their are about seven main theories... hope someone could help out with main one and their characteristic
Neelkanth
the self concept, social cognition, attribution theory, social influence, group processes, prejudice and discrimination, interpersonal processes, aggression, attitudes and stereotypes.
Deepa
what is different between psychoanalysis, psychopathology?
salma
when do children form oppions
Tasha Reply
they sit in home and play home toys
muhammad
oppions?
Grace
How to know other person
RAGHAV Reply
ask questions take interest
Jazz
games learning likes dislikes observe body language or how they carry themselves
Sarah
what is the nature and scope of biopsychology?
Pratibha Reply
working along with neurologists and doctors closely on the field related to brain and nerves
devesh
How can one over come a sleep debt
Andy Reply
how does an algorithm save you time and energy when solving a problem
john Reply
by directing your attention or misdirecting your attention to a particular topic
frederick

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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