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Building on the work of Harlow and others, John Bowlby developed the concept of attachment theory. He defined attachment as the affectional bond or tie that an infant forms with the mother (Bowlby, 1969). An infant must form this bond with a primary caregiver in order to have normal social and emotional development. In addition, Bowlby proposed that this attachment bond is very powerful and continues throughout life. He used the concept of secure base to define a healthy attachment between parent and child (1988). A secure base    is a parental presence that gives the child a sense of safety as he explores his surroundings. Bowlby said that two things are needed for a healthy attachment: The caregiver must be responsive to the child’s physical, social, and emotional needs; and the caregiver and child must engage in mutually enjoyable interactions (Bowlby, 1969) ( [link] ).

A person is shown holding an infant.
Mutually enjoyable interactions promote the mother-infant bond. (credit: Peter Shanks)

While Bowlby thought attachment was an all-or-nothing process, Mary Ainsworth’s (1970) research showed otherwise. Ainsworth wanted to know if children differ in the ways they bond, and if so, why. To find the answers, she used the Strange Situation procedure to study attachment between mothers and their infants (1970). In the Strange Situation, the mother (or primary caregiver) and the infant (age 12-18 months) are placed in a room together. There are toys in the room, and the caregiver and child spend some time alone in the room. After the child has had time to explore her surroundings, a stranger enters the room. The mother then leaves her baby with the stranger. After a few minutes, she returns to comfort her child.

Based on how the infants/toddlers responded to the separation and reunion, Ainsworth identified three types of parent-child attachments: secure, avoidant, and resistant (Ainsworth&Bell, 1970). A fourth style, known as disorganized attachment, was later described (Main&Solomon, 1990). The most common type of attachment—also considered the healthiest—is called secure attachment    ( [link] ). In this type of attachment, the toddler prefers his parent over a stranger. The attachment figure is used as a secure base to explore the environment and is sought out in times of stress. Securely attached children were distressed when their caregivers left the room in the Strange Situation experiment, but when their caregivers returned, the securely attached children were happy to see them. Securely attached children have caregivers who are sensitive and responsive to their needs.

A photograph shows a person squatting down next to a small child who is standing up.
In secure attachment, the parent provides a secure base for the toddler, allowing him to securely explore his environment. (credit: Kerry Ceszyk)

Questions & Answers

Genetic factors that affect the unborn child
IBRAHIM Reply
It becoems intersted to know of perception
Edward Reply
hello
Roselle
Hello My name is Ashraf
Ashraf
hello
Bang
Edward Ashraf?
Roselle
Mr. Edward Ashraf?
Roselle
hey this is hari
Hari
No, I'm not Edward Ashraf
Ashraf
Do you mean people's Mind set towards something
Felix
Very interesting and indeed
Edward Reply
sir
nisha
what are the genetic factors that affect the unborn child
IBRAHIM
maternal age, health history, environmental factors (smoking, drinking, drug use, etc)
Victoriya
child can be prone to diseases that run in family too
An
hello
good evening
hello
Mupenzi
I am from the Philippines
same here
EROLL
Taking AB psych😁
EROLL
Taga CDO ako
Ikaw Kuya taga saan?
Ako po gusto kulang po maging psychology
para ma apply life ko po
Helloo from I'm from Ph din mga kuya!
Ma
Hello rin po
19 po 😅 palang ako
18 pa lang po ako 😅
Ma
ahh..Hehehe
Bakit Install mo tung App. na ito?
mejo nabobored na po kasi ako saka gusto ko po ng heads-up sa kukunin kong course heheh
Ma
Ahh..
Ganun ba..Mag isip isip ka namalapit kana maging Collage Student
Sure na po ko sa psych hehehe
Ma
Ahh..
By the way Ako nga pala si Earl Chris John Lacre (search mp lang sa FB)
Ako BSHM kinuha kung kurso
How can I take BS Psychology during this pandemic? Online course? Recommend schools? Tuition fee? Free classes? Suggestions and insights are very much appreciated.. Thanks!
Sasha
Much better if you find a state universities, passed the EE then you can proceed applying for Bs Psychology. But in this time i think you're late co'z most of the universities are done for EE.
Serenity
Hello, EveryJuan! Akala ko walang pinoy user dito 🤣
Mark
Hello, EveryJuan! Akala ko walang pinoy user dito 🤣
Mark
hello guys I'm new here
Bry
taking BS Psychology. Incoming 3rd year.
Bonamae
Same incoming 3rd Bs Psychology here🙋‍♀
Serenity
what language is this 🤔
Krish
I believe psycology courses are often required for so many programs due to the many issues it covers.
Ashley Reply
Dueto the fact it is not easily studied. One can not study the mind hands on because its not matter or energy.
Ashley
The science of studying.
Ashley
psyche: meaning soul
Ashley
psychology: the scientific study of mind and behavior
Ashley
how one behaves
Ashley
I never knew psyche referred to your soul
Shawnte
I have to say I've always been somewhat interested in psychology
Shawnte
traducir en español ya
Rafael
traducir en español
Rafael
traducir en español ya traducir en español ya quiero que se traduzca en español ya
Rafael
traducir en español ya
Rafael
suppose you are at a dinner party with your friend.The fork, spoon, knife and glasses all produce noisy sounds.What psychological factors influence the discussion between you and your friend?
Vava Reply
It may give me an impression to the other person that the person who makes the noise is nervous or either ill-mannered.
Indefatigable
I would think that people at the table are not comfortable which could be because of the environment or the topic of discussion or the thoughts working in their minds.
Ritu
depending how loud and frequently the sound are made the discussion can change
David
Maybe the noise is to distract the discussion between my friend and I or the discussion I'm supposed to have with my friend is confidential and that's the only way we can talk freely
Naomi
why functinalism?
philip Reply
which question is important in this chapter
Mahi Reply
what is the difference between retention and application and what can be done to improve the connection between the two
frederick Reply
Clues should be developed and associations be formed
philip
what is the study of personality?
Yonatan Reply
psychology
Racheal
individual traits
Utkarsh
Personality psychology
Riya
personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals
Swapnil
what are the basic statistical concepts in psychological research ?
Pawanjeet Reply
mean ,median ,NPC ,t ,z test
Soumyashree
what is the NPC?
Fouad
Maen median mood stander daviation
Janat
Percentile also
Janat
NPC stans for normal probability curve
Janat
Normal probability curve (NPC)
Janat
yez
Soumyashree
Yhn koi b questione kr skta h?
Janat
is there any scale for measuring post COVID Anxiety?
Richard Reply
I'd like to know if there's any?
Zino
I've heard about Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). It works as a mental health screener but I'm not sure anyone can do the test except psychologist
divani
Thanks !
Zino
no
Hausa
Thanks Divani zahra
Mohd
explain the function how intelligence and learning function together
Truvanie Reply
Learning comes before intelligence Learning could be the process of acquiring knowledge. Or the ability to gain knowledge Whereas intelligence is the display of acquired knowledge.
Felix
I love it
Teena
Jade Baccus, this is kind of hard "to me" it is the root of living altogether, without both how can we live in a world like this? how can we make new discoveries?
Jade
intelligence: can be nourisht and remain indipendent from how much knowledge we aquire. But can be displayed thru use and application of knowledge itself
fabio
Hey, is there any classes by psychology grp
Smitha
Hlw Every0ne
Khalilur
learning can be work together with intelligence like a partner with the thinking of life
James
schools of psychology
Onogwu Reply
hi
giri
hi
Swapnil
hi
Munir
hello
Imsekar
hai
Tu
Hi
piya
hello
kajal
Hello
Mohamed
hii
grace
hi
george
hi
Anuja
hi
kajal
gud night
grace
Good night everyone
Anuja
good night 😴🌃
Swapnil
hello
Ananya
What's the point of this chat section?
Mohamed
to say hello and to feel solidarity.
Tu
the early childhood can reference the emotions?
Sammi Reply
Our early childhood experiences are important in the development of our personalities. It kind of shapes our behaviour and mannerism.
Debarpita
Especially in choosing career
Felix
😅Well that's complicated. It differs from person to person.
Debarpita
The early childhood or let's say your upbringing plays a vital role in driving your emotions. If one did not have a pleasant childhood it's highly likely they are more vulnerable to depression or some other psychological condition.
Indefatigable
how to change the emotion?
Sammi Reply
change the thought at hand .
Shawnte
Then I'm assuming the mind will begin to let go of the prior emotion.
Shawnte
Yes right. Think about something else, then emotion will follow.
Annie
then join life
Munir
I don't understand about this
Munir
Emotions run hand in hand with the mind and environment. A person can be sad or angry on a certain things going on in their mind then something can happen in the environment around them that m adds keys them happy.
Douglas

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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