<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Storage

Once the information has been encoded, we have to somehow have to retain it. Our brains take the encoded information and place it in storage. Storage is the creation of a permanent record of information.

In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: Sensory Memory , Short-Term Memory , and finally Long-Term Memory . These stages were first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968). Their model of human memory ( [link] ), called Atkinson-Shiffrin (A-S), is based on the belief that we process memories in the same way that a computer processes information.

A flow diagram consists of four boxes with connecting arrows. The first box is labeled “sensory input.” An arrow leads to the second box, which is labeled “sensory memory.” An arrow leads to the third box which is labeled “short-term memory (STM).” An arrow points to the fourth box, labeled “long-term memory (LTM),” and an arrow points in the reverse direction from the fourth to the third box. Above the short-term memory box, an arrow leaves the top-right of the box and curves around to point back to the top-left of the box; this arrow is labeled “rehearsal.” Both the “sensory memory” and “short-term memory” boxes have an arrow beneath them pointing to the text “information not transferred is lost.”
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, information passes through three distinct stages in order for it to be stored in long-term memory.

But A-S is just one model of memory. Others, such as Baddeley and Hitch (1974), have proposed a model where short-term memory itself has different forms. In this model, storing memories in short-term memory is like opening different files on a computer and adding information. The type of short-term memory (or computer file) depends on the type of information received. There are memories in visual-spatial form, as well as memories of spoken or written material, and they are stored in three short-term systems: a visuospatial sketchpad, an episodic buffer, and a phonological loop. According to Baddeley and Hitch, a central executive part of memory supervises or controls the flow of information to and from the three short-term systems.

Sensory memory

In the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, stimuli from the environment are processed first in sensory memory    : storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes. It is very brief storage—up to a couple of seconds. We are constantly bombarded with sensory information. We cannot absorb all of it, or even most of it. And most of it has no impact on our lives. For example, what was your professor wearing the last class period? As long as the professor was dressed appropriately, it does not really matter what she was wearing. Sensory information about sights, sounds, smells, and even textures, which we do not view as valuable information, we discard. If we view something as valuable, the information will move into our short-term memory system.

One study of sensory memory researched the significance of valuable information on short-term memory storage. J. R. Stroop discovered a memory phenomenon in the 1930s: you will name a color more easily if it appears printed in that color, which is called the Stroop effect . In other words, the word “red” will be named more quickly, regardless of the color the word appears in, than any word that is colored red. Try an experiment: name the colors of the words you are given in [link] . Do not read the words, but say the color the word is printed in. For example, upon seeing the word “yellow” in green print, you should say “green,” not “yellow.” This experiment is fun, but it’s not as easy as it seems.

Several names of colors appear in a font color that is different from the name of the color. For example, the word “red” is colored blue.
The Stroop effect describes why it is difficult for us to name a color when the word and the color of the word are different.

Questions & Answers

why they didn't investigate another person?
NFAK Reply
?
Leuka
?
Cary
be aware your life and others life's It is humanity
muhammad
what is the topic?
paschal
why do people say that girls are more emotional than boys
Soohie Reply
***goodtherapy.org/blog/do-boys-and-girls-express-emotions-differently-1226122?fbclid=IwAR1qdt09vHmDoMHzkoFP8MBRr8nocv9P_I3zluC4rpQ7yo0wO7wVyFwQiB4
Sarah
thanks
NishaOfficial
no problem
Sarah
Wilhem Wundt's introspection technique with his own strict rules for the experiment. Is the technique able to recognize symptoms of mental illnesses, like schizophrenia or dementia for example, or is it only applicable to a certain degree? If so, what is the extent of this technique he used?
Shilla Reply
Yes
Mehmood
Oh, so, yes it can recognize mental illness symptoms?
Shilla
Pls I want to study psychology in higher education but am a bit confused between educational psychology and social psychology which is better?
Odey
confused about what these are two particular fields of psychology tell me odey in which you are interested ?
KhaLid
***differencebetween.com/difference-between-psychology-and-vs-social-psychology/
Sarah
psychology deals with mental processes and behavior in an individual while social psychology deals with society and their influence on an individual
Sarah
what about cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience?
Mehmood
Am interested studying social psychology bt I dnt knw the one that is better
Odey
I can't see the full message u want to know about cognitive psychology and cognitive what was the last part
Sarah
cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience
Mehmood
Cognitive psychology is more focused on information processing and behavior. Cognitive neuroscience studies the underlying biology of information processing and behavior.
Sarah
Cognitive neuroscience overlaps with cognitive psychology, and focuses on the neural substrates of mental processes and their behavioral manifestations.
Sarah
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), cognitive psychology is the “study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking.” As a scientific study of mind and mental functioning, the core focus of modern cognitive psych
Sarah
***bestpsychologydegrees.com/faq/what-is-cognitive-psychology/
Sarah
I'm currently in college studying for my BA in Science of Psychology which is General Psychology
Sarah
thanks Sarah. can a psychologist be a cognitive neuroscientist? or this domain is out of reach from psychologist s
Mehmood
Odey have u looked into the different types of social psychology and what each of them are?
Sarah
cognitive neuroscientists all study psychology biology neurologist chemistry and philosophy. they typically have training in at least one of these disciplines and can work in a variety of roles, from conducting brain research to helping therapy clients overcome mental illness.
Sarah
so I would say yes a psychologist can be a neuroscientist after furthering their education more
Sarah
Pls Sarah, if u can help me wit any material on the difference I will rili appreciate, we find it difficult to get good psychology material in my country
Odey
yes Sarah. it seems it is an interdisciplinary field of study. I don't know whether most of th universities will provide education in cognitive neuroscience. it seems so expensive and laborious to me. what do you think
Mehmood
I'm stressed :(
Ashfaque
yes Sarah. it seems it is an interdisciplinary field of study. I don't know whether most of th universities will provide education in cognitive neuroscience. it seems so expensive and laborious to me. what do you think
Mehmood
***careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-cognitive-neuroscientist
Sarah
Odey here is a link on social psychology and their different types for you to explore ***bestselling.com/research-areas-in-social-psychology-2795913
Sarah
nobody wants to help answer and explain the question I had? Besides a simple yes? And you guys went on with a different discussion here -_- Thank you very much
Shilla
reask your question again and I'm sorry
Sarah
Wilhem Wundt's introspection technique with his own strict rules for the experiment. Is the technique able to recognize symptoms of mental illnesses, like schizophrenia or dementia for example, or is it only applicable to a certain degree? If so, what is the extent of this technique he used?
Shilla
It's okay, forgiven 😂
Shilla
I have to look in my text for that I havent gotten there yet
Sarah
thank you
Sarah
I'm still looking i hope someone else can help. Forgive me?
Sarah
hey guys can anybody provide me.notes regarding indian psychology and how it changes according to time
nitesh
you mean history of indian psychology?
PUSHPITA
yes would be interesting... as individual psychology is influenced by socialization too... my opinion regards
Neelkanth
What explanation will you give to a student  who has challenges with retrieving information from memory? 
Yaa Reply
Memories of events or items tend to be recalled in the same order in which they were experienced, so by thinking through a list or series of events.
Raluca
I personally study using music so when I need to remember what I'm doing I have to use the same playlist
Sarah
Ohk thanks
Yaa
you're welc5
Sarah
welcome
Sarah
How is everyone doing
Lotegeluaki Reply
good.
Cathleen
good
Flora
I didn't know it had this feature. Good, thanks for asking.
Cheriyan
getting better thanks ... how are you ?
Jim
Oh hey
Nikki
Hmm
Nikki
Doing well, thank you!
Amanda
could someone talk about the 4th level of maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid. thanks
Neelkanth
@Neelkanth , The fourth level depicts self worth. It basically means pride enters one's life later on. Honestly, I don't confirm to the hierarchy much.
Zoya
An example, this a drastic example, : Making an 11 year old kid that has gone through basic conditioning beg for his/her life may be easy when you put a gun to their head.
Zoya
However, when you do so to a man in his late 30's to 40's who has also gone through the same conditioning in his childhood, it may be more difficult to make him beg. This is because he has earned a reputation. Went up the hierarchy
Zoya
is there anyone L&D professional here
Abhishek
Abhishek yes go ahead !
KhaLid
Great
Abhishek
when young children speak in short phrases using verbs and nouns,what it is referred to
Simran Reply
how old? generally that's how kids talk isn't it?
Ezra
especially shy ones
Ezra
slang
Emma
what are the social psychology concepts
MICOT Reply
their are about seven main theories... hope someone could help out with main one and their characteristic
Neelkanth
the self concept, social cognition, attribution theory, social influence, group processes, prejudice and discrimination, interpersonal processes, aggression, attitudes and stereotypes.
Deepa
what is different between psychoanalysis, psychopathology?
salma
when do children form oppions
Tasha Reply
they sit in home and play home toys
muhammad
oppions?
Grace
How to know other person
RAGHAV Reply
ask questions take interest
Jazz
games learning likes dislikes observe body language or how they carry themselves
Sarah
what is the nature and scope of biopsychology?
Pratibha Reply
working along with neurologists and doctors closely on the field related to brain and nerves
devesh
How can one over come a sleep debt
Andy Reply
how does an algorithm save you time and energy when solving a problem
john Reply
by directing your attention or misdirecting your attention to a particular topic
frederick
can an obsession with blood and Gore be caused by psychological trauma
Dalton Reply
psychological trauma is a bit of a wild card in the case of long term effects. everyone has their own unique experience and I dont see why the example in your question couldn't be a possible manifestation.
Elle
it would be a bigger possibility of this resulting from trauma if this began after you witnessed a violent or gory event. however this often comes from the amount of violence and gore we are exposed to through social media, the news, and fictional material like books, movies and video games.
andrina
how can the bipolar and mood disorder can prevent?
Shana Reply
Control stress. Stress is a major bipolar trigger. ... If you would control stress you will simply feel good ....if you want to know more about this DM @shana mae
KhaLid
That brings us to the next question.. How do we actually control stress in an effective way?
Looney
well for me mindfulness meditation techniques are very much effective for coping with stress ....
KhaLid
please what are the major things I need to know now in psychology,because I'm a new student of psychology.
Godwin
Godwin if it is your begining in this field you should first clear some concepts like what is psychology it's etymology , structuralism,functionalism , behaviourism and many other perspectives .....
KhaLid
first of all are you studying in psychology or working as a psychologist
muhammad
studying Sir
Godwin
Thank you Sir Khalid.
Godwin
Muhammad Akram Both ☺️
KhaLid
Far too often, you can't control stress just like that on your own . And it will affect you On subconscious level . When it comes to meditation it's something to take seriously and best to be taught by professional.
Kira
I know there are many other ways but I found this one at my own Kira Emerala!
KhaLid
Hi friends
RAJABU
it can't be extracted I'll tell u that much
Shawnte
someone who study psychology here need help ? anyone ?
khawla
Can I ask for tips when you have no motivation and can't focus with your studies?
Jhea
For Shana, I'm sorry, I can't answer your concern at the moment, because I'm still studying about the basics of psychology 😬
Daydreaming
do meditation, start learning few pages initially n understand before moving to another topic
mini
play a sport of your choice for half an hour or listen to your fav music, develop your positive outlook towards life
mini
learn to balance work play study
mini
n health
mini
I'm struggling with BPD cptsd major anxiety disorders and going to college for a psychology degree. trying to maintain motivation is difficult. what can I do?
Sarah
I already meditate take my meds use biofeedback and several other things
Sarah
As a student, it is normal to lose motivation during college life but look at the long term goal. What do you want to achieve at the end? Divide it into small achieveable goals. Once you achieve it, focus on 2nd small goal. Last thing, it's okay to ask for help when needed. We are all in a journey.
mehdi
what's your friend's circle
muhammad
khawla saadouni yes how can I help you ?
KhaLid
Sarah you need CBT it will be effective on that what you are experiencing !!
KhaLid
my therapists have all said to use DBT instead of CBT I find a combination of both generally helps me. and motivation with my education isn't a big problem its more directed towards my mental health concerns. sometimes just getting out of bed is the most difficult part of my day.
Sarah
implicit memory are those type of memories which can be written without any unconsciousness
Aayu Reply
m interested in this research...
Arnav
me too plz I am suffering from depression so v forgetful which has ruined my life
Sins
yes plank youth
Shawnte
0rayers poracles a d majik
Shawnte
cuffed truthfullcreatibeclarity
Shawnte
sins saintly do you need any help regarding how to cope up ?
KhaLid
nebieiluvrue
Shawnte
yes
Shawnte

Get the best Psychology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Psychology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask