<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

There are three types of encoding. The encoding of words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding    . It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words. The 60 words were actually divided into 4 categories of meaning, although the participants did not know this because the words were randomly presented. When they were asked to remember the words, they tended to recall them in categories, showing that they paid attention to the meanings of the words as they learned them.

Visual encoding is the encoding of images, and acoustic encoding    is the encoding of sounds, words in particular. To see how visual encoding works, read over this list of words: car, level, dog, truth, book, value . If you were asked later to recall the words from this list, which ones do you think you’d most likely remember? You would probably have an easier time recalling the words car, dog, and book , and a more difficult time recalling the words level, truth, and value . Why is this? Because you can recall images (mental pictures) more easily than words alone. When you read the words car, dog, and book you created images of these things in your mind. These are concrete, high-imagery words. On the other hand, abstract words like level, truth, and value are low-imagery words. High-imagery words are encoded both visually and semantically (Paivio, 1986), thus building a stronger memory.

Now let’s turn our attention to acoustic encoding. You are driving in your car and a song comes on the radio that you haven’t heard in at least 10 years, but you sing along, recalling every word. In the United States, children often learn the alphabet through song, and they learn the number of days in each month through rhyme: Thirty days hath September, / April, June, and November; / All the rest have thirty-one, / Save February, with twenty-eight days clear, / And twenty-nine each leap year.” These lessons are easy to remember because of acoustic encoding. We encode the sounds the words make. This is one of the reasons why much of what we teach young children is done through song, rhyme, and rhythm.

Which of the three types of encoding do you think would give you the best memory of verbal information? Some years ago, psychologists Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving (1975) conducted a series of experiments to find out. Participants were given words along with questions about them. The questions required the participants to process the words at one of the three levels. The visual processing questions included such things as asking the participants about the font of the letters. The acoustic processing questions asked the participants about the sound or rhyming of the words, and the semantic processing questions asked the participants about the meaning of the words. After participants were presented with the words and questions, they were given an unexpected recall or recognition task.

Words that had been encoded semantically were better remembered than those encoded visually or acoustically. Semantic encoding involves a deeper level of processing than the shallower visual or acoustic encoding. Craik and Tulving concluded that we process verbal information best through semantic encoding, especially if we apply what is called the self-reference effect. The self-reference effect    is the tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance (Rogers, Kuiper&Kirker, 1977). Could semantic encoding be beneficial to you as you attempt to memorize the concepts in this chapter?

Questions & Answers

what is rootology
Glory Reply
a child playing with the friend without complaining is called
Valerie Reply
free child
Nisha
psycosocial development
Anita
playful & sporty child
Jaga
The scope of Experimental Psychology is widening with the invention of new tools and instruments for experiments.
Den Reply
like what kind?
MissRoyal
hello, what kind of people talk throught here
Marcela Reply
the kind looking for answers
Juan
?
John
thought is autonomous. it is up to us compartmentalizing these random various thoughts that we too often incorrectly give them the title of (ideas)
John
what is the scope of experimental psychology?
Fareha
who is pavlo
ROGATH Reply
he believed in classic conditioning
just
he created classical conditioning
naina
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
lavanya
Hello... Gyatri, angel and thinker.. I am MJ.
Mujtaba Reply
hi
naina
Hello
Jeanica
How are you...?
Mujtaba
Fine
Jeanica
Where are you from?
Jeanica
hi everyone 😊
Luis
I'm not trying to be a killjoy but I don't think this is a conversation thread for meeting new people.
Aspen
there are plenty of apps for that
Aspen
hai
kumpulan
@Aspen German well you're right there are other apps that offers ways into meeting new people. however I don't see anything wrong in here? just saying hi and hello.
Luis
but if they turn it into something like a "dating app" then for me that's another story. just saying. 😊.
Luis
hello Everyone
artgalang
Hello Luis, this app is for friends to everyone. 😊🙏
Jeanica
Anyone having problem can leave
Mujtaba
Hi
Red
Hi
Esther
Hello
Jeanica
hello^^
Girlie
is this a Psychology Course GC?
artgalang
Hi I'm from Philippines 🇵🇭
Esther
hellow
Erick
Can anyone.... What is basic criteria for abnormalities...?
Mujtaba
Is here any psychologist or psychiatrist.
Mujtaba
hi Jeanica yes I know that 😊
Luis
hello
Fermin
yes psychologist I am
kirti
me too
artgalang
Can you please explain me Diathesis stress model and its application
Mujtaba
And how can it applied..
Mujtaba
What is randomization
Joseph Reply
definition of stimulus
Thomas Reply
an idea, object or effect via the help of a mediational process which elicits a response
Wayne
please explain me clinical studies
abril Reply
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
what are the characteristics of learning?
steve Reply
The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifetime. To understand how people learn, it is necessary to understand what happens to the individual during the process. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views
MUBARAK
Psychologists generally agree there are many characteristics of learning.
MUBARAK
Learning is the process by which one acquires, ingests, and stores or accepts information. The main characteristic of learning that; it is a process of obtaining knowledge to change human behavior through interaction, practice, and experience.
MUBARAK
Our experiences with learned information compose our bodies of knowledge.
MUBARAK
Is there not one universal understanding or relatable emotion whether physical or communicated verbally they could Trigger empathy?
Tory
what is immune system
Amanda Reply
a complex network of cells that protects the body against infection
Stephen
Sorry. Cells and proteins
Stephen
what is perspectives
acholonu Reply
someones point of view the way ur brain sees the way situations unfold
Echo
perspective is your view on topics
Trish
Perspective is your opinion on certain situations
Connie
your perspective is your interpretation of what is being said and done around you and how you hear and view them .
Jim
is this in reference to any particular use of the word? Because there are also the 7 major "perspectives" in psychology: psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological, cross-cultural, evolutionary, & humanistic
Alex
aren't they like schemas of the world, the future and yourself
naina
Perspective is your opinion on things that you feel, think or hear.
hiba
I'm trying to write a paper about video game and violence and suggestions or researches would help with this
rebal
do you also have to write about aggression and how its linked to video games and violence
naina
because for alevel psychology we could have a 16 marker essay for how media influences aggression which basically includes video games and violence on tv shows
naina
yes basically I'm arguing that video games cause violence not necessarily in a direct way but it plays apart. I'm trying to oppose the popular opinion of video games doesn't cause violence
rebal
It's not connected that much actually tbh
Kira
the way we think
according to my textbook rebal
naina
there is a lab study by Craig an Anderson- computer games mortal combat
naina
Matt delisi et al did a correlation study
naina
Lindsay Robertson et al - longitudinal study
naina
Craig Anderson also did a meta analysis of 136 studies
naina
I will check them thanks naina
rebal
Yes, that would be my recommendation.
Ashley Reply
merits and demerits of observation as a method of studying human behavior in education psychology
Khadija Reply
what is psychology
Khadija
psychology: scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
Ahmed
how to mind reading?
UMESH
how to face reading
UMESH
energy and thought will give mind spirit and proper exercises , flexibility and making mind readind easier
Ahmed
How to read microexpresions easier?
Edg
scope of educationnalpsycology
USMAN
seriously i will pay someone to do an essay for me my god i need help so much 😪😪😪
dearbhlagh
what do you need help with ?
Keiko
The better question is how much?
Pixeled
🥒🍑😩💦
Jacob
hey all I'm Beth I just started psych 101 have 1st test any suggestions I should memorize ?
Bethany Reply
memorize dememorizing
devesh
how the blinds person his dream
Ahmed
Hi! I started as well
La

Get the best Psychology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Psychology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask