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The place theory of pitch perception suggests that different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies. More specifically, the base of the basilar membrane responds best to high frequencies and the tip of the basilar membrane responds best to low frequencies. Therefore, hair cells that are in the base portion would be labeled as high-pitch receptors, while those in the tip of basilar membrane would be labeled as low-pitch receptors (Shamma, 2001).

In reality, both theories explain different aspects of pitch perception. At frequencies up to about 4000 Hz, it is clear that both the rate of action potentials and place contribute to our perception of pitch. However, much higher frequency sounds can only be encoded using place cues (Shamma, 2001).

Sound localization

The ability to locate sound in our environments is an important part of hearing . Localizing sound could be considered similar to the way that we perceive depth in our visual fields. Like the monocular and binocular cues that provided information about depth, the auditory system uses both monaural (one-eared) and binaural (two-eared) cues to localize sound.

Each pinna interacts with incoming sound waves differently, depending on the sound’s source relative to our bodies. This interaction provides a monaural cue that is helpful in locating sounds that occur above or below and in front or behind us. The sound waves received by your two ears from sounds that come from directly above, below, in front, or behind you would be identical; therefore, monaural cues are essential (Grothe, Pecka,&McAlpine, 2010).

Binaural cues, on the other hand, provide information on the location of a sound along a horizontal axis by relying on differences in patterns of vibration of the eardrum between our two ears. If a sound comes from an off-center location, it creates two types of binaural cues: interaural level differences and interaural timing differences. Interaural level difference refers to the fact that a sound coming from the right side of your body is more intense at your right ear than at your left ear because of the attenuation of the sound wave as it passes through your head. Interaural timing difference refers to the small difference in the time at which a given sound wave arrives at each ear ( [link] ). Certain brain areas monitor these differences to construct where along a horizontal axis a sound originates (Grothe et al., 2010).

A photograph of jets has an illustration of arced waves labeled “sound” coming from the jets. These extend to an outline of a human head, with arrows from the jets identifying the location of each ear.
Localizing sound involves the use of both monaural and binaural cues. (credit "plane": modification of work by Max Pfandl)

Hearing loss

Deafness is the partial or complete inability to hear. Some people are born deaf, which is known as congenital deafness    . Many others begin to suffer from conductive hearing loss    because of age, genetic predisposition, or environmental effects, including exposure to extreme noise (noise-induced hearing loss, as shown in [link] ), certain illnesses (such as measles or mumps), or damage due to toxins (such as those found in certain solvents and metals).

Questions & Answers

Is anyone know the exact cause of mental illnesses like Add, Adhd, Ocd, bipolar etc
Kartikey Reply
mental desorders are caused by many factors
riadh
a chemical imbalance with bipolar which if i remember correctly has somthing to do with OCD as well.....?
jessie
its also has to do with parts of the brain that recieve neurons and some that dont.
Natasha
Natasha...u from which country?
Philip
uSA
Natasha
no i need more explanation
Aminu
ADD, ADHD, bi polar, and OCD. the first 3 are mostly chemical imbalance to the brain. bi polar is a chemical imbalance that has to do with the emotional and creative parts of the brain. its cause from not getting the right amount of something or not enough of something. which is why amphetamines
Natasha
will either make them act more normal and or helps them concentrate. also can make the unleveled level out. desoxyn is methamphentimine hydrochloride its for obese add and adhd
Natasha
may I add that some studies have shown that children who have A.D.H.D were more than likely brought up in single parent family's and Im not a 100% sure of the stat's but believe that some studies have shown as many as 80% of children with A.D.H.D were brought up in a single parent inviroment.
Gavin
And I also remember A.D.H.D in the early days and ideas were put fourth of the cause and one that stood out was spending excessive amounts of time playing computer games as that was still quite anew phenomena at the time.
Gavin
not that anyone mentions that one any more lol.
Gavin
I don't believe there is such a thing as chemical imbalance. More research is needed and it's too easy and simple just to blame certain illnesses on a chemical imbalance. What is chemical imbalance? Maybe we should start there.
David
chemical imbalance is when you either lack a brain chemical such as seritonin, dopamine ex.
Natasha
gavin true to that. our enviroment is a big factor in our chemicals. when were happy because of something our bodies produce more dopamine
Natasha
for example. single parent families are stressful which studies have shown cause more damage then we think or relize including brain chemistry
Natasha
lol duh read a book every now an den u won't bee sow retar'ed. geez some people I swair jus aint gots no cents. ya knaw what eye sayin... lol
Brett
ask reinfield from dracula he suffers from psychotic ideation...lol
Rodney
what are the psychological effects of being a patient
Gloria Reply
why is the Synapse so important to biopsychologists
Susan Reply
I dnt know
Sam
because its very important
Deepak
Because that's where the exchange of information takes place which causes reactions in us and so biopsychologists need to study the info transmitted in order to study the reaction to explain a mental process/behaviour
Tina
synapse occurs as part of the brain activity. This is where everything seems to happen. Just imagine this synapse is like firing information, your feelings, and stuff
Ysa
so can i assume that if there is action potential in the pre synaptic cell but the neurotransmitter does not diffuse into the post synaptic cell that this would lead to some sort of mental dysfunction?
Susan
Or the opposite, too much neurotransmitter
George
how long does it takes to stabilize your sleeping hours?
Gabby Reply
15 minutes.
Philip
90 mnit +
Khadim
usually 24 hrs for me
Goof
30mins to 1hr
Joshua
😉
Sarfaraj
30 minutes
Bill
why do we get depression
meghna Reply
how to be a neuropsychologist?
mukhtar Reply
wo Kya hota h?
Gayatri
I speak English sorry... If you can translate: I suggest studying anatomy if you are still in high school. You will need a master degree. So about ten years of college.
Jen
Pay close attention to psychology as well. Biology is a must.
Jen
hmm
Gayatri
what are the factors affecting learning
Savoeda Reply
motivation is probably a big factor, but also intellectual ability, knowing from personal experience
Elaina
why do we get depression
meghna
yes
Natasha
you have it
Adam
low income families, poverty and a poor stimulating environment for children could be caused of learning disabilities or effects.
vincent
any advice on psychological statistics ?
Kurt Reply
I'm taking psychological statistics too
psychological statistic is a branch of psychology that deals with research and experimental aspect of psychology. It is an offshoot if experimental psychology, they make use of statistical tools in describing, predicting, analysing and make an inference about data collected in order to
babatunde
what about factors affecting learning
Savoeda
What is the morality in Greek Mythology?
Lianne Reply
Three basic processes involved in the act of remembering are:
kesandu Reply
encoding, storage, retrieval
Elaina
What is psychology
meghna
psychology is the study of the mind
Teza
Psychology is the scientific study of human mental processes and behavior.
Gaurav
it involves studying both; human and animals. It's called subject in the experimental design.
Professor
The three main processes involved in human memory are encoding, storage and recall (retrieval)..
kevin
Do you think there is a stigma associated with mentally ill persons today? Why or why not?
Ali Reply
yes absolutely
Gayatri
and I do believe that stigma is associated with anything when people at large don't know how to deal with anything
Gayatri
Stigma of drowning.
Zaheer
@Gayatri. plz explain. what it means people don't know.
Zaheer
that people are unaware how to respond to a person dealing with any sort of mental illness
Gayatri
so it means mind can't solve problems of mind. am I right ?
Zaheer
yeah sometimes actually it all depends how a person respond to it
Gayatri
and does anxiety falls in that as well
Zaheer
yes
Gayatri
ok thanks.
Zaheer
who started ethics
Segun Reply
relate social psychology to environmental health
Joyce Reply
what can tell me about analytical psychology of Carl G. Jung
babatunde Reply
google it, I don't think anyone has ever studied it properly.
Priyank
how is social psychology related to environmental health
Joyce Reply
hai to hai apne ko kya
manisha
@Manisha?
Miraj
Hello
Abdul
social psychology is closely related with environmental health
Gayatri
prove from Gayatri Singh
KADIR
social psychology is to be studied to know where the society is headed to
kartik
it has deep impact directly and indirectly to the environmental health
kartik
* I believe, I've not studied psychology though. But I'm curious
kartik
correct me, if wrong
kartik
i think that social psychology helps people understand eachother more wich helps decreasing conflicts that can cause harm for the environmental health
riadh
what is environmental health ?
Gayatri
by the way
Gayatri
?
Gayatri
hello friends i want it to be in easy form
Joyce
hi
Gary
hey
Ashba
Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health.
Ashba
somehow both are related toh each other
Ashba
If everyone is mentally stable then we can all make logically stable solutions to our unstable world.
Birkan

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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