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If we have biological rhythms, then is there some sort of biological clock ? In the brain, the hypothalamus, which lies above the pituitary gland, is a main center of homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level, within a biological system.

The brain’s clock mechanism is located in an area of the hypothalamus known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)    . The axons of light-sensitive neurons in the retina provide information to the SCN based on the amount of light present, allowing this internal clock to be synchronized with the outside world (Klein, Moore,&Reppert, 1991; Welsh, Takahashi,&Kay, 2010) ( [link] ).

In this graphic, the outline of a person’s head facing left is situated to the right of a picture of the sun, which is labeled ”light” with an arrow pointing to a location in the brain where light input is processed. Inside the head is an illustration of a brain with the following parts’ locations identified: Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, and Output rhythms: Physiology and Behavior.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as the brain’s clock mechanism. The clock sets itself with light information received through projections from the retina.

Problems with circadian rhythms

Generally, and for most people, our circadian cycles are aligned with the outside world. For example, most people sleep during the night and are awake during the day. One important regulator of sleep-wake cycles is the hormone melatonin    . The pineal gland    , an endocrine structure located inside the brain that releases melatonin, is thought to be involved in the regulation of various biological rhythms and of the immune system during sleep (Hardeland, Pandi-Perumal,&Cardinali, 2006). Melatonin release is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light.

There are individual differences with regards to our sleep-wake cycle. For instance, some people would say they are morning people, while others would consider themselves to be night owls. These individual differences in circadian patterns of activity are known as a person’s chronotype, and research demonstrates that morning larks and night owls differ with regard to sleep regulation (Taillard, Philip, Coste, Sagaspe,&Bioulac, 2003). Sleep regulation refers to the brain’s control of switching between sleep and wakefulness as well as coordinating this cycle with the outside world.

Disruptions of normal sleep

Whether lark, owl, or somewhere in between, there are situations in which a person’s circadian clock gets out of synchrony with the external environment. One way that this happens involves traveling across multiple time zones. When we do this, we often experience jet lag. Jet lag is a collection of symptoms that results from the mismatch between our internal circadian cycles and our environment. These symptoms include fatigue, sluggishness, irritability, and insomnia    (i.e., a consistent difficulty in falling or staying asleep for at least three nights a week over a month’s time) (Roth, 2007).

Individuals who do rotating shift work are also likely to experience disruptions in circadian cycles. Rotating shift work refers to a work schedule that changes from early to late on a daily or weekly basis. For example, a person may work from 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. on Monday, 3:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, and 11:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. on Wednesday. In such instances, the individual’s schedule changes so frequently that it becomes difficult for a normal circadian rhythm to be maintained. This often results in sleeping problems, and it can lead to signs of depression and anxiety. These kinds of schedules are common for individuals working in health care professions and service industries, and they are associated with persistent feelings of exhaustion and agitation that can make someone more prone to making mistakes on the job (Gold et al., 1992; Presser, 1995).

Questions & Answers

How do counsel someone that is kinda depressed, lonely and stuffs but the person is pushing you away with by saying stuffs you don't like? Your age mate
Ajayi Reply
let them figure themselves out met them come to you and listen more than speak
Jascelyn
don't take anything too personal someone who is depressed has more feelings other than being sad. I have been through it we dont alwaya mean the things we say. just give time and space but be there when they are ready.
Deanna
the person should be first dealt with very patience and understanding.......... person's trust should be won first to treat that kind of state if counsel is the priority..... don't rush small steps will lead to get successful results....... after the patient start trusting you conversate with them.
Amisha
OK..... Thank you very much It makes me look desperate for the person's attention Thanks tho
Ajayi
just let them know even if they aren't ready to tall right now, you will be here for them whenever they are.
Deanna
we need to wait till the stage comes when he/ she is ready at mental level to participate as he is the subject and the core of the part of that particular conscelling session
aaqib
A.Are they saying it in general manner or B.they are saying it cz they know something about you personally If it is A. then remember it's a part of counseling...even if you don't agree with their views..it is theirs.. so don't take it personally
PREETI
if it is B. tell them .. we are here to talk about them not you Also remember people takes time with things.. so it does get difficult at times.. but in counseling it's about them not you. And if it affecting you much .. see why is there .. and try to objective about it OR refer them to someone
PREETI
what is the trait in the given example?
Maya Reply
what's the given example?
SamieMike
my fat cock
Andrea
o.o u seem like u need to read this txt
SamieMike
mental state and behavior
Mufakir Reply
because psychology basic is observation asa well as science, so people might skeptical about these two but if we look into it people might notice that it's different because psychology is study about mind and science is study about many thing around us and it's not study about mind clearly.
Karona Reply
empirical method is the method of observation on object rather than do experiment .
Karona
ology is the study of theory .
Karona
psyche means soul as well as butterfly.
Karona
psychology is the the study of mind and behavior
Karona
this is where I'm a little sceptical. we learning psychology based on books. but we ourselves r also human. when we to encounter a real life situation how well can we act accordingly
Aileen
im curious more of myself then others
Aileen
psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. scientific mean it's based on observation and experiments. yeah we can observe behavior easily but can't read mind directly that's why we do observe behavior and apply test and therapies to study mind basically we behave according to our mind
Faiza
wilhelm wundt studied psychology for the purpose of
Rufai Reply
i dont know, all inknow is that he pioneered the practice of introspective and his school of thought aims to study behavior as structured elements
Rupert
what are the personality traits
Elnestine Reply
1. The theory classified & identifies that there are five personality traits; 1. Openness to experience 2. Conscientious 3. Extraversion 4. Agreeable 5. Neuroticism
Rodney
What is the difference between psychodynamic and psychoanalysis?
Aem Reply
Why do humans tend to attach to another human when the the 2nd person detaches?
Kumkum Reply
can you elaborate the question?
Vipul
Because of the difference in behaviour
Siddhartha
Yeah i want to know also
Mano
IN DETAIL
Mano
Attachment theory, in developmental psychology, the theory that humans are born with a need to form a close emotional bond with a caregiver and that such a bond will develop during the first six months of a child’s life if the caregiver is appropriately responsive.
Siddhartha
thank u Siddharth
dr
But why it happeneds first they Fall in love then irritated from that person😐
Mano
initially people put on mask and show you what you want to see. everything feels amazing. once you start knowing the person more, he or she can't keep the momentum.
Siddhartha
these are the phase/stages of dating/relationship
PREETI
it is Reciprocal Psychology
Siddhartha
reciprocal is toh we give back what we get
PREETI
and answers to kumkum's questions probably is how we act when we start losing something
PREETI
someone*
PREETI
the question is general, not the specific age mentioned.
dcs
@Preeti- I am not a professor of Psychology, I am just putting my thoughts across as a student. Rather than criticism, if you know the answer, please share.
Siddhartha
so um basically Good attachment period,causes the person to form good attachment throughout their life !isn't it or nah?
Keerthi
attachment happens by the understanding on others, where as to detachment, happens by the unacceptable expectations by the individual's.
dcs
loosing or gaining depends on each other expectations
dcs
okay !
Keerthi
@siddhartha - sorry if that came across as criticism
PREETI
can it be a. taking forgranted at first... more like one person is making efforts and then decided to leave ... so the loss of what the other person was offering you... b. overvalueing what you are losing ... it wasn't enough .. but it was something.. so seeing that going away... dilemma hits you
PREETI
c. habit
PREETI
Only those with attachment anxiety tend to attach more with the other person even as they detach.
Faizy
preethi, reciprocal means not only the giving back which we got.. from others. it is exchanging or helping each other in the tough time or in the pleasure time of the individuals.
dcs
thanks dcs dcs
PREETI
My question talks about aftereffects of breaking of any relationship, why does any of the 2 (mostly the one who wants to get out of the relationship 1st) tends to comeback or try to be on standard ground or starts caring genuinely AGAIN etc after mutually parting ways?
Kumkum
human nature is very curious the question of 'what if?' often if not always exist in human mind for which the 1st person (the one who breaks up) explore his/her options in society...when he /she realise it was wrong they try to correct themself and recognise worth of the person...
Vipul
or in negative cases because of insecurities of the 1st person but in this case relationship wouldn't be strong because it is based on self interest or benefit instead of mutual interest.
Vipul
i also agree with what Faizy said
Vipul
one more thing these are my thoughts as a student of psychology only.
Vipul
vipul the what's if.. it's so true. humansomes have many nationality n very different but they still have beliefs n parts like Asia exist a old folkz tale about Si Tanggan.
Aileen
Goggle the story. As a child my mum told me the tale n i admit i was a bit scared that will happen to me cause I'm too curiosity handful. But then i think logically how is that possible. Point is. The what's if is like a tempting if that's full of endless possibilities but yet every question must ha
Aileen
have an answer. So very choice made n done but still dwelling on what's if is always what held people to do what they desire.
Aileen
the discussion was good today, keep going... for better knowledge in psychology.
dcs
I believe the another perspective of answering the question would be the fact that humans are social beings. People will always need people. Other than that, It could also be an involuntary coping mechanism.
Alisha
yes. the fact that humans always need company whether it's human or pets. i think this need is what makes us human or sane?
Aileen
but I'm curious how true that statement can be. some people don't really enjoyed company like introvert ie. how long can person be alone n being ok. i enjoyed attention but most times i rather be alone if possible i would get lost to avoid others.
Aileen
because we are human and we need to have dependency on each other. as if a person or our love one detaches from us we r tending to have another one like him or her so that what we expect from that detached person will now fulfilled by this new one.. if it care or love or anything else..
Faiza
but now with smartphone i think human are more into it's company instead of a real person in front of them. n why. how can u trust someone on a chat app n agree to couple. how can it work. n i seen lots of teenager doing this n i want to point out this is very dangerous. some take it seriously
Aileen
hence due to heartbreak they become emotional. they even talked about self harm n worst. weather its just saying to get attention or truthfully self harm we can't confirm but that actually thought it's self can only do harm. why resort to doing that. no hurt is worth a life.
Aileen
faiza.. how about if that a person like the husband went to prison n the wife will go on her life. let's say that they have a complicated relationship for people who not known may not guessed that they are a couple. now the wife thinks it's better without him but still attached to him
Aileen
Aileen , this is the condition.. husbnd is in jail not detached by his own wish so the wife may have expection of his arrival back.
Faiza
the attachment is only the longing u get when someone been in ur life too long to notice its different. she took the kids n moved. now there's a few guys that's interested in her. they each had their ways but not one impressed her. she felt even though she has issue with the husband
Aileen
n by law she's still his wife. she was has a strong personality. she maybe a female but she will fight for her rights. she doesn't want any help n rather stay at home avoiding everyone but her kids. can this wife dependent on herself not needing another due to the emotional pain she suffered
Aileen
I didn't getting your point. did u mean she is want freedom from husband or society, or she wants what!?
Faiza
yes expecting. to her she is doing her part as a wife n mother to her kids. she wasn't the same person before. she had depression but self harm wasn't her worries. the hurt she emotionally suffered and self conscious hurts. physical pain caused can heal in time but how can something hurts
Aileen
like heartbreak the stab in the heart when we felt betrayed type. how can this pain hurts. as time goes by this pain had numb n the things that used to cause pain now felt nothing n rather had guessed.
Aileen
that's the thing. she doesn't understand herself either. she's been his wife. she left everything for him. he's possessive n blamed her for something. even its his fault she was blamed. she unsure how n if she can be free.
Aileen
he made her believe that she's not worth it. n she is self conscious plus the treatment by him somehow imprinted in her mind but somehow she showed the strong confident side of how she used to be.
Aileen
can I ask the what the question is ...there are so many responses I am a little confused
Anju
What is Difference between PhD&PsyD?
Arham Reply
what is personal inadequacies
kidist Reply
what is personal inadquacies in mechanism of development
kidist
don't know
Siddhartha
Look to Piaget's study of moral development. Perhaps you will find the answering you are seeking.
ankura
the theory on the birds happiness can't be measured its the same as doctors measuring the pain patients. how accurate if some are more intense hence will be too late
Aileen
Even though birds are alive they can not speak as humans so therefore pain can not be properly measured live matter are the two main ingredients that Science needs humans can communicate their level of pain a bird can not yes you can tell if a bird is is in distress but from what? How would you know
Candelyn
what are the best self teaching apps and best schools to get into online for my clinical psychology studies and basic starting of psychology
Jascelyn Reply
good question
Stacy
Don't go to Touro University Worldwide. I believe Grand Canyon University may be good. Most importantly make sure you find one that is APA accredited. If you have anymore questions please feel free to message me at OLEXP@ICLOUD.COM
ankura
Oh sorry, you're looking for Apps not schools. MIT has open-source courses. Google OPEN SOURCE and APPS and INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
ankura
what is introseption method
Isaac Reply
looking within oneself and analyzing yourself also known as experimental method of psychology
Ayesha
worst thing ever to do
Winter
worst thing ever to do? im sorry winter i beg to differ -thru introspection you can analyse your self ,your mistakes, your way of processing thoughts, and hopefully change them for betterment of ourselves and become a good if not ideal human being.
Vipul
How would you describe a good or ideal human ?
ankura
who became as positively role model to the society may consider as ideal human.
dcs
where as to good human is not affecting others in the aspects of psychological, physical, financial and social, etc,.
dcs
i think ankura sui got cleared doubts mentioned above..
dcs
introspection is examining one,s own thoughts and feelings..
dcs
there was mistake not one,s.. that is one's.
dcs
introspection is examining your own thoughts , feelings and motivation. it is analysis of yourself. for example in meditation we focus on our feelings and understands them.
Faiza
the problem with that is that it could be subjective rather than being objective
Pius
mcq persuasion and discrimination
Muhammad Reply
father of psychology
Ali Reply
Wilhelm Wundt is father of psychology
Sridevi
Wilhelm wundt, but some people get confused and thinks freud was the father of psychology.
Geo
Wilhelm woundt
dcs
Freud is founder of psychoanalysis
dcs
not the father of psychology
dcs
wilhem webdet
kidist
what are the. name scientific of motivation
Eman Reply
what
GOPAL
What
Stac

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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