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The substantia nigra    (Latin for “black substance”) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)    are also located in the midbrain ( [link] ). Both regions contain cell bodies that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, and both are critical for movement. Degeneration of the substantia nigra and VTA is involved in Parkinson’s disease. In addition, these structures are involved in mood, reward, and addiction (Berridge&Robinson, 1998; Gardner, 2011; George, Le Moal,&Koob, 2012).

An illustration shows the location of the substantia negra and VTA in the brain.
The substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are located in the midbrain.

The hindbrain    is located at the back of the head and looks like an extension of the spinal cord. It contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum ( [link] ). The medulla    controls the automatic processes of the autonomic nervous system, such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate. The word pons literally means “bridge,” and as the name suggests, the pons    serves to connect the brain and spinal cord. It also is involved in regulating brain activity during sleep. The medulla, pons, and midbrain together are known as the brainstem.

An illustration shows the location of the pons, medulla, and cerebellum.
The pons, medulla, and cerebellum make up the hindbrain.

The cerebellum    (Latin for “little brain”) receives messages from muscles, tendons, joints, and structures in our ear to control balance, coordination, movement, and motor skills. The cerebellum is also thought to be an important area for processing some types of memories. In particular, procedural memory, or memory involved in learning and remembering how to perform tasks, is thought to be associated with the cerebellum. Recall that H. M. was unable to form new explicit memories, but he could learn new tasks. This is likely due to the fact that H. M.’s cerebellum remained intact.

Brain dead and on life support

What would you do if your spouse or loved one was declared brain dead but his or her body was being kept alive by medical equipment? Whose decision should it be to remove a feeding tube? Should medical care costs be a factor?

On February 25, 1990, a Florida woman named Terri Schiavo went into cardiac arrest, apparently triggered by a bulimic episode. She was eventually revived, but her brain had been deprived of oxygen for a long time. Brain scans indicated that there was no activity in her cerebral cortex, and she suffered from severe and permanent cerebral atrophy. Basically, Schiavo was in a vegetative state. Medical professionals determined that she would never again be able to move, talk, or respond in any way. To remain alive, she required a feeding tube, and there was no chance that her situation would ever improve.

On occasion, Schiavo’s eyes would move, and sometimes she would groan. Despite the doctors’ insistence to the contrary, her parents believed that these were signs that she was trying to communicate with them.

After 12 years, Schiavo’s husband argued that his wife would not have wanted to be kept alive with no feelings, sensations, or brain activity. Her parents, however, were very much against removing her feeding tube. Eventually, the case made its way to the courts, both in the state of Florida and at the federal level. By 2005, the courts found in favor of Schiavo’s husband, and the feeding tube was removed on March 18, 2005. Schiavo died 13 days later.

Why did Schiavo’s eyes sometimes move, and why did she groan? Although the parts of her brain that control thought, voluntary movement, and feeling were completely damaged, her brainstem was still intact. Her medulla and pons maintained her breathing and caused involuntary movements of her eyes and the occasional groans. Over the 15-year period that she was on a feeding tube, Schiavo’s medical costs may have topped $7 million (Arnst, 2003).

These questions were brought to popular conscience 25 years ago in the case of Terri Schiavo, and they persist today. In 2013, a 13-year-old girl who suffered complications after tonsil surgery was declared brain dead. There was a battle between her family, who wanted her to remain on life support, and the hospital’s policies regarding persons declared brain dead. In another complicated 2013–14 case in Texas, a pregnant EMT professional declared brain dead was kept alive for weeks, despite her spouse’s directives, which were based on her wishes should this situation arise. In this case, state laws designed to protect an unborn fetus came into consideration until doctors determined the fetus unviable.

Decisions surrounding the medical response to patients declared brain dead are complex. What do you think about these issues?

Questions & Answers

who is pavlo
ROGATH Reply
he believed in classic conditioning
just
he created classical conditioning
naina
Hello... Gyatri, angel and thinker.. I am MJ.
Mujtaba Reply
hi
naina
Hello
Jeanica
How are you...?
Mujtaba
These peoples are my friends can anyone here online..
Mujtaba
What is randomization
Joseph Reply
definition of stimulus
Thomas Reply
please explain me clinical studies
abril Reply
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
what are the characteristics of learning?
steve Reply
The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifetime. To understand how people learn, it is necessary to understand what happens to the individual during the process. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views
MUBARAK
Psychologists generally agree there are many characteristics of learning.
MUBARAK
Learning is the process by which one acquires, ingests, and stores or accepts information. The main characteristic of learning that; it is a process of obtaining knowledge to change human behavior through interaction, practice, and experience.
MUBARAK
Our experiences with learned information compose our bodies of knowledge.
MUBARAK
Is there not one universal understanding or relatable emotion whether physical or communicated verbally they could Trigger empathy?
Tory
what is immune system
Amanda Reply
a complex network of cells that protects the body against infection
Stephen
Sorry. Cells and proteins
Stephen
what is perspectives
acholonu Reply
someones point of view the way ur brain sees the way situations unfold
Echo
perspective is your view on topics
Trish
Perspective is your opinion on certain situations
Connie
your perspective is your interpretation of what is being said and done around you and how you hear and view them .
Jim
is this in reference to any particular use of the word? Because there are also the 7 major "perspectives" in psychology: psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological, cross-cultural, evolutionary, & humanistic
Alex
aren't they like schemas of the world, the future and yourself
naina
Perspective is your opinion on things that you feel, think or hear.
hiba
I'm trying to write a paper about video game and violence and suggestions or researches would help with this
rebal
do you also have to write about aggression and how its linked to video games and violence
naina
because for alevel psychology we could have a 16 marker essay for how media influences aggression which basically includes video games and violence on tv shows
naina
yes basically I'm arguing that video games cause violence not necessarily in a direct way but it plays apart. I'm trying to oppose the popular opinion of video games doesn't cause violence
rebal
It's not connected that much actually tbh
Kira
the way we think
according to my textbook rebal
naina
there is a lab study by Craig an Anderson- computer games mortal combat
naina
Matt delisi et al did a correlation study
naina
Lindsay Robertson et al - longitudinal study
naina
Craig Anderson also did a meta analysis of 136 studies
naina
I will check them thanks naina
rebal
Yes, that would be my recommendation.
Ashley Reply
merits and demerits of observation as a method of studying human behavior in education psychology
Khadija Reply
what is psychology
Khadija
psychology: scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
Ahmed
how to mind reading?
UMESH
how to face reading
UMESH
energy and thought will give mind spirit and proper exercises , flexibility and making mind readind easier
Ahmed
How to read microexpresions easier?
Edg
scope of educationnalpsycology
USMAN
seriously i will pay someone to do an essay for me my god i need help so much 😪😪😪
dearbhlagh
what do you need help with ?
Keiko
The better question is how much?
Pixeled
🥒🍑😩💦
Jacob
hey all I'm Beth I just started psych 101 have 1st test any suggestions I should memorize ?
Bethany Reply
memorize dememorizing
devesh
how the blinds person his dream
Ahmed
Hi! I started as well
La
what is prototype
Arnav Reply
what is event schema
Arnav
Event schema is how you deal with situations is this installation is good you gonna handle a great but if it's badd you have to be strong I handle it the best way you can and stay positive
Connie
why do we adapt to negative events more quickly as compared to the positive ones?
Fareha
The negative ones are easier to adapt because of the people the we surround ourselves with if we surround ourselves with negative people who go to see things negatively but if we surround ourselves with positive people we are going to see things more positive
Connie
oh ok thanks!
Fareha
your welcome
Connie
what are the remedy for ADHD
anagha Reply
methylphenidate
Maryjade
counter conditioning
gad Reply
it is d conditioning were u add an unpleasant stimulus ad a pleasant stimulus to give a good response. eg a girl that hate or fears snake u add her mom to d picture because she loves her mother she gradually tends to like snake
dalusi
can I get an update on the discussion at hand
Segun
I'd like one as well, please
Trish
I third this.
Redacted
you guys could refer to a research by Mary Cover Jones. she did a study on counter conditioning.
Shubhra
i too would like to get an update on the dicussion please
Connie
so basically we are discussing about counter conditioning. if you all know about classical conditioning which was done by pavlov, later a similar thing was done by JB Watson, but on a child. this child was made to learn a phobia.
Shubhra
after his unethical experiment, his student mary cover jones also did an experiment where she proved, if a fear can be learnt, it can also be unlearn. hence, counter conditioning. where a negative stimulus (any fearful object) is followed by a pleasant stimulus (eg food).
Shubhra
After several pairings, the fear is neutralized.
Shubhra
hey, i wanted to know in positive counter conditioning a several trials are done to make the person unlearn their phobias but in aversive (-ve) counter conditioning,after just 1 trial a person learns that behaviour, why the negative behaviour is learnt in just 1 try?
Fareha
Please what is randomization?
Joseph
hi, may I have many MCQ?
Ango Reply
hi
Teri
what would you like to know
Connie
We want to know everything
victor
what's MCQ?
Ronah
Multiple Chouce Questiom
Connie
Who knows something about Multiple Personality Disorder ?
victor
Victor what you want to know in it
Brindhu
Everything you know about it.
victor
what you know about functionalism
Teri
@ Victor. Dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder has two or more distinct personality states.they may be disconnected among thoughts, identity, consciousness and memory .this could be happened when to trauma of childhood incident or any other impact in life
Brindhu
how do you identify these altars ? and how do you easily identify MPD patient ?
victor
what is experimental bias
Teri
experimental bias is when you experiment with something and you like it and tell someone else about it and you tell them ira good even though they don't have the same reacton to it that you did
Connie
define Experiment
Teri
Experiment is trying something new you don't know how it's gonna work out or even if it will work or if it won't so you try it anyway it's sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn't
Connie

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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