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Beyond the damage to the frontal lobe itself, subsequent investigations into the rod's path also identified probable damage to pathways between the frontal lobe and other brain structures, including the limbic system. With connections between the planning functions of the frontal lobe and the emotional processes of the limbic system severed, Gage had difficulty controlling his emotional impulses.

However, there is some evidence suggesting that the dramatic changes in Gage’s personality were exaggerated and embellished. Gage's case occurred in the midst of a 19 th century debate over localization—regarding whether certain areas of the brain are associated with particular functions. On the basis of extremely limited information about Gage, the extent of his injury, and his life before and after the accident, scientists tended to find support for their own views, on whichever side of the debate they fell (Macmillan, 1999).

Image (a) is a photograph of Phineas Gage holding a metal rod. Image (b) is an illustration of a skull with a metal rod passing through it from the cheek area to the top of the skull.
(a) Phineas Gage holds the iron rod that penetrated his skull in an 1848 railroad construction accident. (b) Gage’s prefrontal cortex was severely damaged in the left hemisphere. The rod entered Gage’s face on the left side, passed behind his eye, and exited through the top of his skull, before landing about 80 feet away. (credit a: modification of work by Jack and Beverly Wilgus)

The brain’s parietal lobe    is located immediately behind the frontal lobe, and is involved in processing information from the body’s senses. It contains the somatosensory cortex    , which is essential for processing sensory information from across the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain. The somatosensory cortex is organized topographically, which means that spatial relationships that exist in the body are maintained on the surface of the somatosensory cortex ( [link] ). For example, the portion of the cortex that processes sensory information from the hand is adjacent to the portion that processes information from the wrist.

A diagram shows the organization in the somatosensory cortex, with functions for these parts in this proximal sequential order: toes, ankles, knees, hips, trunk, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, thumbs, neck, eyebrows and eyelids, eyeballs, face, lips, jaw, tongue, salivation, chewing, and swallowing.
Spatial relationships in the body are mirrored in the organization of the somatosensory cortex.

The temporal lobe    is located on the side of the head (temporal means “near the temples”), and is associated with hearing, memory, emotion, and some aspects of language. The auditory cortex    , the main area responsible for processing auditory information, is located within the temporal lobe. Wernicke’s area    , important for speech comprehension, is also located here. Whereas individuals with damage to Broca’s area have difficulty producing language, those with damage to Wernicke’s area can produce sensible language, but they are unable to understand it ( [link] ).

An illustration shows the locations of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas.
Damage to either Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area can result in language deficits. The types of deficits are very different, however, depending on which area is affected.

The occipital lobe    is located at the very back of the brain, and contains the primary visual cortex, which is responsible for interpreting incoming visual information. The occipital cortex is organized retinotopically, which means there is a close relationship between the position of an object in a person’s visual field and the position of that object’s representation on the cortex. You will learn much more about how visual information is processed in the occipital lobe when you study sensation and perception.

Questions & Answers

What explanatory value do you think behavioral learning theory has for human behavior?
Kuurshejr Reply
what are the contributions of Darwin's evolutionary theory to psychology
Merit Reply
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
Haley Reply
what is post traumatic stress disorder?
Nafisa Reply
can we ever think beyond books?
Chandrakant
what is schizophrenia?
Nafisa
Nafisa Sultana# Schizophrenia is characterised by thoughts or experiences that seem out of touch with reality, disorganised speech or behaviour and decreased participation in daily activities. Difficulty with concentration and memory may also be present.
Mohammad
ok..thanks a lot
Nafisa
and what about post traumatic stress disorder?
Nafisa
Nafisa Sultana# Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event.
Mohammad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, or rape or who have been threatened with death, sexual violence or serious injury.
Mudit
okk
Nafisa
thanks
Nafisa
PAM🥂
Mudit
Hello! how we can apply CBT therapy? any source to learn practice it?
Isra
Nafisa Systematic desensitization is another name of Exposure therapy in which an individual brought to little anxious condition and he show anxiety but soon come to understand that it's vague. and afterward to original situation where he shows same behavior and realize as above treatment for Anxiey
Wajid
what are the four basic style of life? explain
Alysha Reply
Describe the characteristics proposed by Alfred Adler that kay develop on first born, second born, and youngest children as a result of their order of birth within the familys
Alysha
answer pl
Nss
it's complicated
Chandrakant
like how you count all these things and put them into a category?
Chandrakant
4 styles of life Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Neglectful
Wajid
what does alfred adler differ from sigmund freud
Alysha Reply
One of the differences is that Adler had an holistic view of individuals when studying them whereas Freud worked on separate personality components
Syed
what are the differences between their theories
Alysha
heyyy
Crazy
Freudian theory of personality have basic components as ID,Ego,Superego. Freud have psychosexual developmental model of personality. Whearas Adler given Birth order in personality development also focused on Inferiority complex and superiority complex.
Wajid
thank you
Alysha
thanks guys for your information 👍
Sonu
my pleasure..
Wajid
Was Psyche rlly a Mortal woman
Elijah Reply
yes name psyche derived from anicient mortal women
Wajid
how much for book
Ashley Reply
Whose book?
Natalie
if it is for this book, psychological trauma and illuminations are each taxed differently depending on your mental preparedness to engage in the subject.
Nathaniel
tell me 5 best things that a woman can do better than a guy and a guy can do better than a woman?
Chandrakant
I just know this that women have more emotional intelligence than men and men are more practical than women
Samiha
Yes womens emotional intelligence as mother is more than father and father is more practical than a mother
Wajid
What explanatory value do you think behavioral learning theory has for human behavior?
Kuurshejr
does this apply to the career in applied behavior analysis?
Nicole Reply
Actually I really don't know much about psychology because my age is just 13 ..but I am interested in this subject.I feel it important..to know human behavior and about the world not materially but emotionally.. Can you help me from now to take the courses of psychology from now?
Nafisa
I can try. im only in my 2nd year
Nicole
read, take notes, study ask questions, study some more. you"ll do just fine. u made it this far.
jeddy
yes it does.
jeddy
age isn't a barrier.
jeddy
same here I am even 12 And I am interested in psychology reading and knowing is ok but what about exams
Vaishali
I have downloaded an app where I used to give exam per day
Nafisa
heyy.. I'm new here..can I know what is this chat box used for?
pakki
would you please recommend the app
Vaishali
here u can clear u doubts ..if u r having any problems
Nafisa
Hi can you help me? I need ideas for my thesis title related to psychology
Mercelyn
what's the subject?
Nicole
@nafisa name that app....
Ishan
psychology quiz
Nafisa
Don't learn psychology, learn what is the possibilities of mind then you will get know what is the psychology in real sens.
Mohammad
that's very truee
Nafisa
hii everyone I m new here
ROFIKUL
hmm
Nafisa
hello guys..go through q youtube and watch some psychological facts about human ....it is really very interesting....
Nafisa
Watch the illusions and be aware about it🤗
Nafisa
all information teaches something, its just not always truth.
Nathaniel
agreed
Teena
yes nafis what kind of help do you need
Wajid
no sir..
Nafisa
wajid sir can u explain me about the exposure therapy with an example
Nafisa
Nafisa Systematic desensitization is another name of Exposure therapy in which an individual brought to little anxious condition and he show anxiety but soon come to understand that it's vague. and afterward to original situation where he shows same behavior and realize as above treatment for Anxiey
Wajid
I was recently diagnosed schizophrenic. after a lifetime of major depression. time I did hear voices not for long. how does one know if they really schizophrenic?
Cathy Reply
because psychology is the dissection and study of the mind, some find it hard to believe a diagnosis under mental health concerns. if you feel you have been misdiagnosed, go to another doctor. be 100% honest in all questions asked. to lie to your doctor is much like lying to yourself/hurting self
on the contrary, a diagnosed schizophrenic doesn't always have episodes. it may start off very mild and progress over time. it may also be triggered by events/situations/certain states of mind the patient may experience
diagnosed schizophrenics are normally prescribed a medication that can help. if you feel your medication is not working, or that it may make matters worse, discuss this with your doctor so he/she can make adjustments. what works for one person may not work for them all, and so doctors need to know
i want to study about psychology b'coz my father has a mental illness. iwant to help my father to healed from her sicknessed.
Layca
please whats the answer
Fortune Reply
answer to what?
Gaunt
what is mean by what?
Mohammad
to the questions ooo i can't find the answers
Fortune
Can you repeat the question or comment the page you saw it?
Haim
why they named it psychology
zayn Reply
telll me
ABDUL
the word "psychology" comes from the Greek words "psyche" meaning life and "logos" meaning "explanation".
Soma
Psyche, in Greek mythology was a goddess who comes to represent the human soul's triumph over the misfortunes of life. The term psychology was coined. Psyche, meaning soul or mind and the root "ology" meaning the study of. I hope this helped.
JC
well done
ABDUL
how you convince a drug addict not to consume drugs?
Chandrakant
advise them to do exercises and keep themselves energetic, and tell them to control their urge and whenever they get an urge just go for a jogging or something (I'm not a professional, I'm only telling my point of view so please do ask someone else too)
Samiha
ya I appreciate wat you said
Chandrakant
you r sweet tho samiha 😊😊
Chandrakant
What explanatory value do you think behavioral learning theory has for human behavior?
Kuurshejr
what is chunking
Ritika Reply
Chunking is a process by which individual pieces of an information set are broken down and then grouped together in a meaningful whole.
Azquan
chunking is to information as syllabus is to word
ABDUL
what dose it means, operant and classic conditioning in short words?
Mikiyas Reply
classical conditioning is based on association between unnatural stimulus to natural response whether the conditioning on the basis of consequences is known as operant conditioning.
Wajid
okk
Nafisa
well said Mr.Wajid
Maryam
well..
Nafisa
example in humans lacking education
Olivia
scientific method, critical thinking.
jeddy Reply
the dealings with the thought process and human behavior.
jeddy
for acquiring knowledge by experimentation.
jeddy
study scientific study of mind and behavior.
jeddy
scientific study of the human mind and behavior.
jeddy
hey jeddy I have question s for you
Yussuf
hi what is behavioralism ?
jusem
what is psychology..?
Ania
the science of mental life.
Mikiyas
it focuses on understanding and modifying human behaviour
ABDUL

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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