# 2.3 Analyzing findings

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Explain what a correlation coefficient tells us about the relationship between variables
• Recognize that correlation does not indicate a cause-and-effect relationship between variables
• Discuss our tendency to look for relationships between variables that do not really exist
• Explain random sampling and assignment of participants into experimental and control groups
• Discuss how experimenter or participant bias could affect the results of an experiment
• Identify independent and dependent variables

Did you know that as sales in ice cream increase, so does the overall rate of crime? Is it possible that indulging in your favorite flavor of ice cream could send you on a crime spree? Or, after committing crime do you think you might decide to treat yourself to a cone? There is no question that a relationship exists between ice cream and crime (e.g., Harper, 2013), but it would be pretty foolish to decide that one thing actually caused the other to occur.

It is much more likely that both ice cream sales and crime rates are related to the temperature outside. When the temperature is warm, there are lots of people out of their houses, interacting with each other, getting annoyed with one another, and sometimes committing crimes. Also, when it is warm outside, we are more likely to seek a cool treat like ice cream. How do we determine if there is indeed a relationship between two things? And when there is a relationship, how can we discern whether it is attributable to coincidence or causation?

## Correlational research

Correlation means that there is a relationship between two or more variables (such as ice cream consumption and crime), but this relationship does not necessarily imply cause and effect. When two variables are correlated, it simply means that as one variable changes, so does the other. We can measure correlation by calculating a statistic known as a correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient    is a number from -1 to +1 that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between variables. The correlation coefficient is usually represented by the letter r .

The number portion of the correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship. The closer the number is to 1 (be it negative or positive), the more strongly related the variables are, and the more predictable changes in one variable will be as the other variable changes. The closer the number is to zero, the weaker the relationship, and the less predictable the relationships between the variables becomes. For instance, a correlation coefficient of 0.9 indicates a far stronger relationship than a correlation coefficient of 0.3. If the variables are not related to one another at all, the correlation coefficient is 0. The example above about ice cream and crime is an example of two variables that we might expect to have no relationship to each other.

The sign—positive or negative—of the correlation coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship ( [link] ). A positive correlation    means that the variables move in the same direction. Put another way, it means that as one variable increases so does the other, and conversely, when one variable decreases so does the other. A negative correlation    means that the variables move in opposite directions. If two variables are negatively correlated, a decrease in one variable is associated with an increase in the other and vice versa.

Angela
Thanks angela
Ali
Ali
what is this
Maryam
Geo
Geo
actually I don't know
Maryam
I badly need some for my research :<
Geo
But I need that😥
Mohammed
***courses.lumenlearning.com /boundless-sociology/chapter/theories-of-socialization/
Jobin
branches of psychology
neuropsychology
jeddy
behaviorism
Mira
Legal psychology
Miljana
Developmental psychology, Sports psychology , Clinical psychology , Marketing psychology , counseling psychology , Biological psychology, Educational psychology , Positive psychology etc.
child.psychology
Nss
social, occupational psychology
jeddy
what does it mean when the temporal lobe is anterior to occipital lobe
the cortex refers to what part of the brain
John
the cortex refers to what part of the brain
John
cerebral cortex
jeddy
behind?
jeddy
in what time of situation is training most useful?
Nyakuei
i think its not about suitation, its about the thing tatz need training.
gokul
training is possibly warranted for all situations.
rhoda
I would think that training should be an ungoing thing. That's before, during and after. just in case there's a reoccurrence
Angela
any time
Aaronz
what is Karma
I think the summation of good and bad deeds you do in your life. Accidentally or otherwise.
Yes. I totally agree.
ana
And if it is bad then the root must have been too.
ana
Yes , In Hinduism we also believe that our parent's Karma also applies to us ! Don't know about that , but it kept people in check .
Adding to Swarada point. karma can be good or bad. both will have consequences. karma is biasedness you have shown in your life. like a king could not have two rules for normal man and his son, that comes under karma.
Sujeet
Oh perfectly said!
Ok. It is also said that when one does something... bad or good..it will come back to you 10 folds of the same.
ana
yea that too ! I remember my mother always said if u stole someone's 10 rupees ur 100 will be stolen ( excuse my English ! I'm a non - English speaking person)
karma is nothing but what one usually mean when they say- what you sow, so shall you reap.
Alisha
certainly
Crazy
more important.. this concept was told by lord Krishna as part of spirituality, to focus on your good deed ,the purpose you are born for and your responsibilities. Not for hoping that bad will happen with people who made you feel bad. just giving example ;)
Sujeet
karma is the boomerang of your actions. what u put out in the universe u get back
David
Who is the founder of psychology
Wilhelm wundt
Amanda
Wilhelm Wundt
Sneha
William wundth
Ihrar
Wilhelm Wundt
Megha
and William James
Amanda
Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt is the founder of structuralism
Angela
Yes and also the "Father of Psychology" I think the correct word is Father not Founder.
oh ok. noted
Angela
i believe it goes beyond him I believe it is Ancient but un formalized
David
David
Oh thanks! But u summarised it well!
what is up my fellow psych peeps!!
what are some academic research on developmental psychology
Chezy
Sawrada Founder of Psychology is W.Wundt but Father of Psychology is Sigmund Freud...
Wajid
what are some good schools to study psychology?
George Mason, Penn State, UVA, university of Michigan
Jasmine
Hi I'm currently doing my experimental psychology research can you suggest a topic or research topic for my research thank you and please see 😊
Hello Jerico. I could help you out with some ideas if you're interested!
Yasmine
can u give me some ideas too?
Geo
For sure. It depends if you're trying to do an experiment (using statistics probably) or a case study what are you aiming for?
Yasmine
Hello Jerico. Try to opt for something simple and easy to do. I wouls say perhaps study the effects of color on concentration? You could get a group of people and have them take a memory test (you can find some online) in a white room for example. Then have them take another memory test
Yasmine
similar to the first one but in a different room and then you check the responses if the performance is better
Yasmine
but you have to know that a lot of factors will interfere in the performance such as mental state etc so make sure to choose a certain specific population. that's very important
Yasmine
you could be a bit more specific about it , to isolate the variables that can mess it up like age, sex, etc... you gotta take that into account
Yasmine
so that the results get somewhat accurate
Yasmine
that is very detailed information I really like it thank you very much 😊 your so very kind
Jerico
You're very welcome
Yasmine
what are your interests in general?
Yasmine
Althogh I'm persuing botany and engineering.... but I also want to study human behaviour and psychology.... I would like if anyone can share their knowledge with me !!!!
Crazy
I'm interested on effect of electroconvulsive therapy on people having a depression
Jerico
What is Electroconvulsive therapy?
Pixeled
Astral Projection
Mansi
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment that is most commonly used in patients with severe major depression.
Jerico
What are the expected dutties functions and responsibilities of a head of an agency based on the principles, Practice of industrial psychology?
what are the psychological characteristics expected from an employee wether regular or occupying a position?
Paul
I can't able to differentiate between clinical psychologists and psychologists...
psychologist is A wider term including all the psychologists from ol the fields of psychology, e.g business psychologist, sports psychologist, marketing psychologist, clinical psychologist, counciling psychologist...where as clinical psychologist is a a psychologist who helps the people to overcome
Irm
or deal wd mental problems, like depression, phobias, schizophrenia, etc
Irm
I have a Question
Mushtaque
where can I get Old Question Paper's of Psychology Entrance Exam
Mushtaque
Ma psychology from ignou will be helpful becoz Iam not from psychology background plz suggest if any online source not distance learning.
Fazilat
past papers of psychology from where I can get
Riaz
What explanatory value do you think behavioral learning theory has for human behavior?
I have chronic insomnia and when i don't get a decent night's sleep I'm like a zombie. I walk around without being highly conscious.
Isco
start 9pm onwards daily think bout mostly happiest moments you like. then sound sleep with Happy dreams you get over night
anxiety
jeddy
anxiety disorderes
jeddy
what are the contributions of Darwin's evolutionary theory to psychology
2nd School of thought Functionalism is based on Darwin's evolutionary theory. And evolutionary Psychology have it's foundations from Darwinism.
Wajid
can you explain about evolutionary theory ?
Raaju
can you please explain how functionalism is based on Darwin ?
An
continues changes over generation to generation for the survival of the fittest is evolutionary theory.
Wajid
Functionalism focuses that psychology should study functions of conscious instead of its parts like wundt and tichner and pragmatism is theory based on evolutionary theory.
Wajid
oh that makes sense thank you very much Mr Hussain
An
James's theory of pragmatism is that a child complete all generation variation in mother's pregnancy period. This theory has its foundation t in evolutionary.
Wajid
An
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
what is post traumatic stress disorder?
can we ever think beyond books?
Chandrakant
what is schizophrenia?
Nafisa
Nafisa Sultana# Schizophrenia is characterised by thoughts or experiences that seem out of touch with reality, disorganised speech or behaviour and decreased participation in daily activities. Difficulty with concentration and memory may also be present.
and what about post traumatic stress disorder?
Nafisa
Nafisa Sultana# Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, or rape or who have been threatened with death, sexual violence or serious injury.
Mudit
thanks
Nafisa
PAM🥂
Mudit
Hello! how we can apply CBT therapy? any source to learn practice it?
Isra
Nafisa Systematic desensitization is another name of Exposure therapy in which an individual brought to little anxious condition and he show anxiety but soon come to understand that it's vague. and afterward to original situation where he shows same behavior and realize as above treatment for Anxiey
Wajid
traducir en español para siempre ya
Rafael
thanks sir..
Nafisa
How hard is the math in psychology? I'm just first year college
EROLL
its not.maths. statistics
Nss
its an elevational disorder on the consensus on the statistics. but more like the sales person on the line....
Kay
or the interdependent same linguistics. on the mediational downpull.
Kay
just to suite the disorder and immediately following the upside bassframe the disorder.
Kay
its the monotonal static.
Kay
guys I need an online therapist....wanna get rid of some personality disorders
an evaluation is needed. this procedure is usually conducted face to face for authenticity. after diagnosis and a plan is in place, you may have the option to communicate with your therapist online rather than in the office
post traumatic stress is the ending result brought on by experiencing a very traumatic event.
jeddy
Hi guys who is a behaviourist? and can a person have the natural skill of this?
Daniel