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This figure, titled “Exposure Therapy,” illustrates the exposure therapy strategy of Mary Cover Jones to rid a person of the fear of rabbits. The first of four levels depicts an image of a person and a rabbit with an equals sign between them. Under the rabbit reads “conditioned stimulus (CS),” and under the person reads “fear of rabbits.” The second level depicts an image of milk and cookies, labeled “unconditioned stimulus (US),” and on the other side of an equals sign there is a picture of the same person labeled “unconditioned response (UR).” The third level shows the milk and cookies, labeled “unconditioned stimulus (US),” and rabbit, labeled “conditioned stimulus (CS),” to the left and right of a plus sign, with the person on the other side of an equals sign. The label “unconditioned response (UR) is below the person.” The final level shows the person and the rabbit separated by an equals sign. This time the rabbit is labeled “conditioned stimulus (CS)” and the person is labeled “conditioned response (CR).”
Exposure therapy seeks to change the response to a conditioned stimulus (CS). An unconditioned stimulus is presented over and over just after the presentation of the conditioned stimulus. This figure shows conditioning as conducted in Mary Cover Jones’ 1924 study.

Thirty years later, Joseph Wolpe (1958) refined Jones’s techniques, giving us the behavior therapy technique of exposure therapy that is used today. A popular form of exposure therapy is systematic desensitization    , wherein a calm and pleasant state is gradually associated with increasing levels of anxiety-inducing stimuli. The idea is that you can’t be nervous and relaxed at the same time. Therefore, if you can learn to relax when you are facing environmental stimuli that make you nervous or fearful, you can eventually eliminate your unwanted fear response (Wolpe, 1958) ( [link] ).

A close-up picture of a very large spider on a person’s arm is shown. The person is using its other hand to hold up two of the spider’s legs.
This person suffers from arachnophobia (fear of spiders). Through exposure therapy he is learning how to face his fear in a controlled, therapeutic setting. (credit: “GollyGforce – Living My Worst Nightmare”/Flickr)

How does exposure therapy work? Jayden is terrified of elevators. Nothing bad has ever happened to him on an elevator, but he’s so afraid of elevators that he will always take the stairs. That wasn’t a problem when Jayden worked on the second floor of an office building, but now he has a new job—on the 29th floor of a skyscraper in downtown Los Angeles. Jayden knows he can’t climb 29 flights of stairs in order to get to work each day, so he decided to see a behavior therapist for help. The therapist asks Jayden to first construct a hierarchy of elevator-related situations that elicit fear and anxiety. They range from situations of mild anxiety such as being nervous around the other people in the elevator, to the fear of getting an arm caught in the door, to panic-provoking situations such as getting trapped or the cable snapping. Next, the therapist uses progressive relaxation. She teaches Jayden how to relax each of his muscle groups so that he achieves a drowsy, relaxed, and comfortable state of mind. Once he’s in this state, she asks Jayden to imagine a mildly anxiety-provoking situation. Jayden is standing in front of the elevator thinking about pressing the call button.

If this scenario causes Jayden anxiety, he lifts his finger. The therapist would then tell Jayden to forget the scene and return to his relaxed state. She repeats this scenario over and over until Jayden can imagine himself pressing the call button without anxiety. Over time the therapist and Jayden use progressive relaxation and imagination to proceed through all of the situations on Jayden’s hierarchy until he becomes desensitized to each one. After this, Jayden and the therapist begin to practice what he only previously envisioned in therapy, gradually going from pressing the button to actually riding an elevator. The goal is that Jayden will soon be able to take the elevator all the way up to the 29th floor of his office without feeling any anxiety.

Questions & Answers

does psychology deal with love?
Mohammed Reply
Maybe, i think
edem
I definitely would say yes
Clara
how so
Isaiah
*triarchic
Meredith
there are so many different reasons why you can fall in love with someone, many of them develope subconsciously -> psychology
Clara
love messes with the brain, a lot, ergo I believe that Psychology does indeed deal with love
what is synapse
Katie Reply
In the central nervous system, a synapse is a small gap at the end of a neuron that allows a signal to pass from one neuron to the next. synapse are found where nerve cells connect with other nerve cells
Najeem
can you do auto book auto
Mariah Reply
WHT u mean?
usef
yes
MD
heyy, may i join the conversation please?
edem Reply
who is the father of psychology
Richy Reply
aristatil
Ramadevi
and please, how would you guys, describe the study of psychology at college ?
edem
psychologist student?
Aspen
i mean not yet but am about to start college so wanna know how is it(college in general and psychology course) please
edem
Psychology is the study of mind and behaviour. So if you will take psychology as a subject so you will get to know how your everything (physical, mental, social, spiritual aspects) effects your behaviour
sakina
With this brief knowledge you can help people to cope up with their problems and only you can guide them correctly
sakina
And if you go for further specialisations you can study hypnosis, face reading, body language etc
sakina
Thanks a lot🙏🏾 And ik some of the stuffs u said but i am also going to write thesis, right ?
edem
ok no prob, thanks a lot🙏🏾✨
edem
cerebellum
Khan
hae everyone, hope you are well this evning my question is what is the difference between drive and motivation
Michael
good question
Rainee
drive is more like an impulse or urge and i think they both go together (drive and motivation) even if there is a slight difference
edem
@ Michael Drive is delivered to be innate without the use of an external stimuli, motivation normally evolves an outside stimuli which may include praise, appreciate, or reward.
Reginald
*believed...sorry for typo
Reginald
@Reginald, can't the motivation come from the inner self?
edem
Good question, please give an example.
Reginald
can we say desire of success for example
edem
Wilhelm Wundt is the father of psychology
ipau
Wilhem Wundt thank you for the road that you opened.
Qwanta
You mean who is the father of having a great educated argumentative guess? nothing is more wrong than this question. The question is you should ask yourselfs is, how sure are you abour their scientific studying? one's percieved assimilated approach to judging another person and saying they are
Roger
the biggest problem with scientific research and data is that ya you could get the same result 1000 times then it could go the other way 1000 times, but we would never know that and we did, we would still say ya but the proof is there. The only thing science proves is that humanity has
Roger
no facts about human behavior in the scientific context, but more in the trial and error.. sorry to tell you, but so far no one has proven Father of anything, thats up to you and i, judgement is bias, science is good enough lazy
Roger
cognitive development is the growing and development of the brain.
Jessy Reply
Anyone knows about Techno-fascism?
Hussein Reply
Ecofascism is a theoretical political model in which an authoritarian government would require individuals to sacrifice their own interests to the "organic whole of nature". The term is also used as a rhetorical pejorative to undermine the environmental movement.
ipau
what's the big difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Danice Reply
A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude.  Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them.  Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior
Nancy Lee
hi
basher
hello
Rahul
what is all about cognitive development?
Kamohelo
cognitive development is the growing and development of the brain
Jessy
how do you control a variable when using spss whilst running a pearsons correlation analysis?
Jessie Reply
it dependa on your study. according to what you want to say and explain your result
Pouran
why does it say her and she
Jayla Reply
stages of cognitive development
brivia Reply
sensory preoperatinal concrete formal
Rajendra
what is psychology
Chethani Reply
the study of insecurities and the effect on the host .
Sera
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior & mental processes
Angela
psychology is science about learning human behaviour
Zhamshid
behaviorosm
Khan
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
Nene Reply
what is reward
Angeles Reply
reward is a technique to change behaviour
Rajendra
Reward is a way to promote a specific behaviour or to teach someone/ something to behave a specific way or perform a specific task.
Johan
a reward is something that is usually associated with desirable behavior. The child got a reward for winning the game. A reinforcer is different in that a reinforcer is anything that increases behavior, even if it is increasing an undesirable behavior.
Meredith
reward is earned effort realized
freweini
why heroine addicted people smoke heroine in a dirty and polluted place ?
Najeem Reply
?
Sera
?
Sera
G
ky
/i don't know
Rajendra
🤔
Hammam
I believe they don't wanna be seen
Ruphine
Rajendra Singh I'm asking from those who know thanks for your comment
Najeem
Ruphine it's not a scientific answer
Najeem
Ok
Ruphine
more my personal opinions and experiences than a real answer but more of an answer than the question marks
Jehsika
what's the data or fact that actually say that heroine smokers host in dirty and polluted place.
amaan
Generally the more time an addict is using and the harder they use the more their life and everything around them crumbles. it's quite common to find neat respectable clean users but over time the addiction increases and their health declines along with their ability to keep up day to day duties.
Jehsika
I'll see if I can find some links for you to have a read.
Jehsika
hi. as heroine affedted exactly on the brain, it should be because the chages heroine makes on frintal lobe and sensory and motor parts. after a while the cannot behave in a normal way. in a way heroine ruines the neurones
Pouran
The things said in the thread are some of the most horridly presumptuous & unwarrantedly pretentious statements I've read in my entire life. It's distastefully disrespect, to say the least.
Kaytee
Pouran Hi! thanks for answering I'm agree with your opinion and may the answer be the same
Najeem

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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