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Psychotherapy: behavior therapy

In psychoanalysis    , therapists help their patients look into their past to uncover repressed feelings. In behavior therapy    , a therapist employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors—rather than digging deeply into one’s unconscious. Therapists with this orientation believe that dysfunctional behaviors, like phobias and bedwetting, can be changed by teaching clients new, more constructive behaviors. Behavior therapy employs both classical and operant conditioning techniques to change behavior.

One type of behavior therapy utilizes classical conditioning techniques. Therapists using these techniques believe that dysfunctional behaviors are conditioned responses. Applying the conditioning principles developed by Ivan Pavlov, these therapists seek to recondition their clients and thus change their behavior. Emmie is eight years old, and frequently wets her bed at night. She’s been invited to several sleepovers, but she won’t go because of her problem. Using a type of conditioning therapy, Emmie begins to sleep on a liquid-sensitive bed pad that is hooked to an alarm. When moisture touches the pad, it sets off the alarm, waking up Emmie. When this process is repeated enough times, Emmie develops an association between urinary relaxation and waking up, and this stops the bedwetting. Emmie has now gone three weeks without wetting her bed and is looking forward to her first sleepover this weekend.

One commonly used classical conditioning therapeutic technique is counterconditioning    : a client learns a new response to a stimulus that has previously elicited an undesirable behavior. Two counterconditioning techniques are aversive conditioning and exposure therapy. Aversive conditioning uses an unpleasant stimulus to stop an undesirable behavior. Therapists apply this technique to eliminate addictive behaviors, such as smoking, nail biting, and drinking. In aversion therapy, clients will typically engage in a specific behavior (such as nail biting) and at the same time are exposed to something unpleasant, such as a mild electric shock or a bad taste. After repeated associations between the unpleasant stimulus and the behavior, the client can learn to stop the unwanted behavior.

Aversion therapy has been used effectively for years in the treatment of alcoholism (Davidson, 1974; Elkins, 1991; Streeton&Whelan, 2001). One common way this occurs is through a chemically based substance known as Antabuse. When a person takes Antabuse and then consumes alcohol, uncomfortable side effects result including nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate, heart palpitations, severe headache, and shortness of breath. Antabuse is repeatedly paired with alcohol until the client associates alcohol with unpleasant feelings, which decreases the client’s desire to consume alcohol. Antabuse creates a conditioned aversion to alcohol because it replaces the original pleasure response with an unpleasant one.

In exposure therapy    , a therapist seeks to treat clients’ fears or anxiety by presenting them with the object or situation that causes their problem, with the idea that they will eventually get used to it. This can be done via reality, imagination, or virtual reality. Exposure therapy was first reported in 1924 by Mary Cover Jones, who is considered the mother of behavior therapy. Jones worked with a boy named Peter who was afraid of rabbits. Her goal was to replace Peter’s fear of rabbits with a conditioned response of relaxation, which is a response that is incompatible with fear ( [link] ). How did she do it? Jones began by placing a caged rabbit on the other side of a room with Peter while he ate his afternoon snack. Over the course of several days, Jones moved the rabbit closer and closer to where Peter was seated with his snack. After two months of being exposed to the rabbit while relaxing with his snack, Peter was able to hold the rabbit and pet it while eating (Jones, 1924).

Questions & Answers

How would one cure a multiple personality disorder.
Tushal Reply
psycotherapy
Sohaib
what is psychology of learning is study.
Wasii Reply
The mind and behaviour
Tushal
Ignore is the best THERAPY my Bro Nagendra just enjoy your life don't make your life hell just because other say....
Milky Reply
That is wrong advice.... If you or your family members and friends think that you need help then listen to them
Tushal
If your right you have everything to gain and if your wrong you have nothing to lose.
Tushal
Nothing to lose but much to gain in the form of depression and anxiety
arsh
ignoring is the worst advice I've ever heard...
John
I am happy to hear all of your advices...I am very thankful for answering
nagendra
?
Gayatri
No offence but ignoring and not acknowledging that you do need help because something is wrong is the worst idea ever. I know that for someone it may scary or whatever but it will help the person both know what and why it is happening but also understand the mental illness that have.
Arsh And John FYI I m not saying that in case of a valuable advice okay.... but If people do silly things which makes you angry just ignore that ...
Milky
we R open To a Good ,useful piece of Information but CRITICISM is not acceptable ,,,,,Society deprives person of their individuality ,he has the right to do good things ....naysayers will say let them say... Hope Arsh And John my brothers got the idea
Milky
I'm just encouraging Nagendra brother to ignore silly acts of people which makes you angry.......just enjoy your life ,,,don't think over what people will say....
Milky
I have experienced whatever Nagendra bro is suffering from ...just sharing my experience and now I'm much happier ,,,,,I'm in a much happy space while ignoring what others says just because I know they R wrong ...
Milky
we understood your argument the first time and well people have the right to say things about you and you have the right not to listen
Sohaib
exactly Sohaib that is what I'm saying....people usually discourage u.....So yeah you have the right not to lesson them hhaaha
Milky
and Tushal I think you need to reread my advice I have said that except from file Bcx that want good for u.....and even don't lesson to your friends who always do silly type of things ...
Milky
sorry family I have written file...
Milky
My purpose is to be adhered to the truth.... Nothing matter more in life Than relationships. Some of them are choice less and some are priceless and we have to choose according to our preferences and taste... So choose them wisely and try to ignore the negative its impact on your life.
arsh
and i advise -again- do the mindset reset it really helps
Sohaib
IN THE END I WOULD SAY THAT.... BE POSITIVE. And live life to the fullest.
arsh
Arsh now you have elaborated my Advice ,,,,same opinions broo....
Milky
Basically everyone's point here is do what is best for yourself and your own mental wellbeing. Do not listen to people who discourage you to do something you think/know will not help or make it worse. Am I right in thinking this.
well said unknown person
Sohaib
Thanks Sohaid well said from a 15 year old
That's what I m saying my Anonymous Broo
Milky
Hahahha All of you are debating on what I have already cleared ......
Milky
yes o wise one from your sea of knowledge we all drink
Sohaib
ohhhhh Thankssss Jaffrrryyy .........
Milky
Jaffrrryyy You are amazing that what I say
Milky
not so simple to ignore
Kasha
kasha My sister ,,,,,,,,there is a lot in the debate ,,,different opinions regarding IGNORE....
Milky
it's not it's a skill takes time to make it part of your default mode network
Sohaib
?
Prince
milky I understand that too
Kasha
indeed ,, Sohaib...
Milky
okay ,,,,Kasha everyone has their own opinion ,,so may be your perspective on this stance may be different from others... So da share whatever you think will increase our knowledge...
Milky
Why is everyone debating on the same opinion
milky i agree cause if u dwell on what people say or think about you then you are going to be miserable the rest of ur life trying to please everyone that is never satisfied with what you do anyways so just ignore the BS and move on with your life
Melissa
Why is human behaviour is some how different from person to person?
arsh Reply
Your Personality will determine your characteristics known as behaviour patterns.
Tushal
Will it be genetically presumed or it will be inherited naturally
arsh
Personality somehow is most likely common among people.... Or I guess how could you differentiate personality
arsh
Genetics allow everyone to be different. Physical differences cause people to act different along with being brought up in different environments.
John
genetics, culture and environment affect it.
Dark
what is psychology?
Kambe Reply
psychology is study of individual differences...
Insha
psychology is the study of mind and behavior
Angeline
yes ,indeed it is the study of Mind and Behaviour.....
Milky
individual differences all occurs in it...
Milky
mind and behavior is old definition of psychology.. being from psychology background i dnt think psychology is study of mind is justified
Insha
You can put it this way as well, psychology studies everything. Why people behave as they do. why people react to a certain stimuli or object
Angeline
you are so right Insha Amin..you cant simply study the mind
Angeline
milky Way .. i defined psychology in my own way ... for me so far as I perceived nd understood i find it should be study of individual difference... everyone has their perspective I am challenging anyone definition I am just presenting my own
Insha
indeed Insha ,we are here to enlighten each others mind by different opinions ,,,,By this we can add different perspectives to our knowledge.....
Milky
Insha ,,,what is your academic background ? are you studying psychology or others academics...
Milky
I am post graduate in psychology
Insha
it's Great Sister!!!!! we all can learn much from you as well as others like u in this forum...
Milky
great! i have a lot to learn from all of you here
Angeline
you know better from me as I have psychology just as a supporting subject.....just introduction of psychology
Milky
thank you brother .... surely we will insha allah
Insha
from what country are you both?
Angeline
yes surely we will learn alot
Insha
Angeline pasi..... I am from Kashmir
Insha
Angeline can you suggest from my name? hhhahaa
Milky
and you Angeline?
Milky
I'm an asian
Angeline
milky way I dont know.haha
Angeline
great All of three from Asia....
Milky
i'm a filipino
Angeline
Philippines ,,,That's great
Milky
milky Way... it is the way you look at things some find milky way in cup of coffee nd for some whole universe is desolate.... you hve choosed a unique name... milky way takes everything together absolute life
Insha
feeling pleasure Insha .......
Milky
you sure indeed know a lot Insha Amin
Angeline
what Are u studying Angeline?
Milky
hey where is my brother Sohaib...Sohaib R U there brooo
Milky
I'm a graduate of psychology..but I jnow I still have a lot to learn
Angeline
yes ,,,,Will learn Angeline InshaAllah....
Milky
we can all share our knowledge.
Angeline
Psychology is a part of human sciences since a long time before it was actually considered.
arsh
I am not able to control my ager what should I do
nagendra
@Nagendra. You should first analyse the reason for your anger. Then you could substantiate the answer
arsh
if others tell lie to me then I get anger
nagendra
how should I respond normal manner
nagendra
If you feel your temper slowly rising, remove yourself from the situation completely. .
Angeline
practice relaxation techniques
Angeline
@Nagendra, i think you are quite judgmental. At some point you should be more Empathetic to others and try to feel the same way like others
arsh
@Nagendra Sudanapalli Usually anger or stress is not due to external factors but due to the way we interpret them. We are all lied to all the time but some of us get more angry about it. If you see a professional, he/she will find out anoit the way you think and will help you easily.
Hooman
hello everybody
Godfrey
thank you Angeline and tanveer
nagendra
you are right arsh tanveer
Angeline
Angeline could you please tell me relaxation techniques
nagendra
We should remember that nobody is perfect
arsh
one more thing, people say anything wrong about me even if I don't do wrong. then I get wrong. what should I do
nagendra
when you are upset, u have breathes quickly.you need to control ur breathing. if u feel like ur mood is slowly rising, take deep breaths.think of a funny memory
Angeline
@ In my opinion you should practice mindfulness.... It will surely help
arsh
true indeed
Angeline
@nagendra u have to change your mindset..
Angeline
hi everybody am newly join Ur team
Anu
welcome Anu Anushya
Angeline
okay,
nagendra
thank for sharing
nagendra
thanks for sharing
nagendra
how are you?
Sonic
very fyn about Urself
Anu
hello anu
nagendra
you are welcome
nagendra
where are you from
nagendra
Salem
Anu
Where is it situated?
Sonic
tamilnadu
Anu
Ohh well how are you?
Sonic
people will say Nagendra let them say ,,,,if u give importance to each and everything ...it is neither good for u nor your health....
Milky
if you are so desperate to win approval of others you will get nothing but CRITICISM.. Enjoy Your life Nagendra
Milky
nagendra , i would suggest
Sohaib
a mind set reset
Sohaib
Ignore people and what they say except what your father or mother says ,,,,Because they truly loves you.... don't take action at minor things it will help you get rid of your anger.....
Milky
just re program your RAS
Sohaib
wow i love this forum. you guys are amazing.
Takunda
yes ,,Takunda we R....
Milky
thank you milkway
nagendra
will meditation help to control my anger?
nagendra
heyy, you guys talk too much and i see notifications, so i decided to join
Zümrâ
Welcome aboard...!!!
Sonic
welcome zmr kemdir
nagendra
nice Zmr
Takunda
What if we don't really sleep?
Dark Reply
we may lose our minds
david
That would be fatal
Tushal
What you see is what you believe... That's a quote. And what you believe is what you see are hallucinations unless backed up by theoretical concepts of reality.
Tushal
yeh, I know. It's just a "what if". A mind blowing thing.
Dark
this has actually happened , one of the advisors to an abassain caliph couldn't sleep due to excessive brain activity
Sohaib
poor man died young
Sohaib
The human mind does many things such as transfer memories from the short term to long term memory etcetera. Therefore we would not be able to remember anything from our past. Also we would have a lack of energy and this therefore is fatal.
yes I believe you need sleep to ease you thought process
Kasha
Yeh, we all need to sleep and avoid sleep deprivation.
Dark
I have experienced not sleeping not good feeling at all
Kasha
What you see is what you believe? or what you believe is what you see?
Dark Reply
what you believe is what you see.
Shalomkegeta
what you think what you believe leads to things you see.
sushant
It is all in one's conscious mind.
Dark
everyone has their own interpretation of what they see and everyone can see differently.
Helena
I think they endlessly interact based on one's mental schemas. That's how it's easy to spiral up or down, like in depression.
Emily
Yes
amin
I think you "believe it when you see it" hints the fraze, "I'll believe it when I see it"
Gianni
Hints the reason why I'm an atheist living in a Christian house hold at the moment😅👍🏾
Gianni
being an atheist or theist doesn't matter more. to move forward you need something to believe in. or blame at.. or else you will aways blame yourself for losses and get overconfident with each achievement. so spread love and share sadness.
Deepak
what we see is only the effect of what really "IS".
Gert
why doesn't it matter?
Gianni
what doesn't matter?
Milky
you can't actually see something if you don't believe that something really exist.
Dark
sometimes what we see we shuldnt believe.... as people were masks.. we cnt see the real personality of person. wht is we believe is what we see is also wrong our belief system cn b wrong sometimes which impact our seeing... so both may b right or may not b right....
Insha
Indeed but our beliefs lies in our state of mind or state of consciousness.
Dark
Insha Amin are you from Pakistan? It seems you are Muslim...
Milky
belief system includes environment... too our beliefs are reinforced by society.. that also knows our state of mind we are pretty much conscious about it. .
Insha
milky Way.... all Muslims ain't from Pakistan
Insha
either pakistan or somwhere nearby
Sohaib
kashmir Sohaib
Insha
It's like what we see has its limits because we what we believe in is limited. Can you imagine how big the universe is if you can only look in a tiny hole? Let's say that tiny hole is your belief.
Dark
It's all about the mind you may see the same thing or situation from a different perspective than I do
Len
isn't the answer to this question a bit too obvious!
Sohaib
Insha I know Pakistan is not the onlyidlim country in the world but from your name it seems that your are From Pakistan,By the way Kashmir was also the part of Pakistan ,Not big deal Insha..
Milky
* Muslim country
Milky
I am Muslim from a Muslim state Kashmir j&k
Insha
we get that, so moving forward - mr milky way are you a martian?
Sohaib
Hello friends
amin
hi
Odumu
yup,,,,Sohaib I have got a plot in the moon ,,so there I have to change my name otherwise they are not going to accept me...
Milky
Hi Amin and Odumu!!!!
Milky
And Insha You belong to Such a beautiful and amazing place ...Kashmir is a paradise on earth hope will visit ...
Milky
hi from South Africa
Darron
hi Darron De ,,,How R?
Milky
iv'e been to kashmir FYI
Sohaib
FYI I'm not Addressing you man I m addressing the one Who belong to the very territory ....
Milky
don't show us that you have been there ,,,,,Great Discovery ....
Milky
somebody is feeling a bit jealous at the moment
Sohaib
That is a loaded question with a lot of variables. Some people see what they want to see and believe what they want to believe.
Rae
exactly Dear? Deeer Aye Drust Aye😎
Milky
it is good to express your current feelings with your sisters and brothers ,,,,,You will get rid of that....
Milky
psychology says If blame other for certain feelings means u R suffering from that...Am I right My little bro Sohaib?
Milky
wow how cool! enlighten me further oh wise one
Sohaib
you are free to ask any question my little bro Sohaib will try to enlighten you more
Milky
much obliged
Sohaib
yeah!!!! I'm honored
Milky
nice meeting you though
Sohaib
same here Bro!! will talk onward
Milky
@ milky Way yup it is indeed paradise on earth.. you are most welcome
Insha
Hi Milky. where are you from?
amin
According to Sohaib from my name isn't seems like somewhere from.....
Milky
hi Amin!! how R u?
Milky
thank you. I'm from Iran
amin
welcome....
Milky
I'm glad to see you
amin
same here Amin Mkh.......
Milky
good night everybody ......sweet dreams
Milky
also
amin
what you believe is what you see
david
What you see is what you believe... That's a quote. And what you believe is what you see are hallucinations unless backed up by theoretical concepts of reality.
Tushal
Dark Dream tell me why you were asking about my age ..By the way your are my little brother Dreamo...
Milky Reply
what is wrong with you?
John
Dark Dream you are my little brother .....By the way tell Me why you were asking about my age?
Milky Reply
Just to distance my self and my respect, maybe? And actually I'm a sister.
Dark
And maybe you could tell your age now?
Dark
I' m Around 🐒 ... I forgot..can u guess
Milky
I'd be careful. These messages are public for all to see
Miky
I think around 20s or 30s?
Dark
Yeah. But you didn't put your name. Identity still secured.
Dark
Excuse me for imposing, but why are you so amid to know their age?
Miky
No, not really. Never mind that. Just skip the question. It's all fine when you tell me you're older. That's fine, really.
Dark
I Haven't mind it my little broo
Milky
Miky !!! It's seems like my name..Isn't it?
Milky
Hm?
Dark
good night guys!!!! sweet dreams .....will talk tomorrow
Milky
And dark dream May u have ' Light Dreams'
Milky
sorry Dark ....Got seriously ? was just joking my little bro
Milky
Never mind that.
Dark
It's nothing.
Dark
you said Dark you are reading books I really appreciate that .....Reading makes a man perfect said Bacon
Milky
Just working with some stuffs but thanks. I'm a sister, actually.
Dark
OOhh sorry!!! my little sister ,,,,,Sending best wishes for whatever you are doing ....gud night
Milky
you R most welcome my Bro!!! Dark dream first tell me your age the i will tell whether I m ur Elder or young brother....
Milky Reply
I'm 15.
Dark
hypnosis is an artificially induced state in which suppressed memories and feelings are revealed....
Milky Reply
Is There Any One ? Why there is calm and silence😷😝
Milky
Because there are tensions and noises.
Ira
Absences build the world- the absence of light creates darkness like the absence of calmness creates tension.
Ira
it creates endings and beginnings
Sarah
God save us from tensions and noises ira😝
Milky
Dunno, if that's what you believe in. Sorry, my name is not Ira, it's my sister's. Just can't log in with my account.
Ira
okay,,,Not big deal my sister Biscocho😃😃
Milky
okay,,,Not big deal my sister Biscocho😃😃
Milky
No, of course.
Ira
have u heard of the breaking news my brothers and sisters?
Milky
Can I ask? Why I can't log in with my real account? I just changed my birthday there because I thought that was the problem. Whenever I'm sending a message with that account in here it just says like there has a problem then try it again later but nothing good really happen.
Ira
You are a religious person, aren't you?
Ira
I Think first of all u should uninstall the app and the installed the app and sign it with your Google account or make another account.....
Milky
hahahha Biscocho my sister how you made that opinion about me ,,,First tell me about that ,,,,a psychological approach...
Milky
Iras' sister why I made that opinion about me.....
Milky
sorry!!! You made
Milky
A psychological approach? Maybe? Like earlier you told me or us the God save us thing. Maybe not really a psychological approach but more likely to be an impression.
Ira
Sorry for the question. HIHI
Ira
But still, I can't logged in with my account. It still recognizes the past setting of my account but don't really mind it. HIHI I'm just a bothersome.
Ira
Maybe this one will do.
Dark
It's Okay.....there is nothing like bothersome in it........
Milky
we are here to help each other ..........
Milky
can't get you Light Dream!!!!!
Milky
Yeah, thanks. Can you tell me your age? It's fine not the specific age like middle age or teenager or whatsoever age.
Dark
You are Most welcome my Bro!!!Dark Dream My brother first u tell m about your age then I will tell u whether I am your elder or younger brother...
Milky
Like I'm really young and just fond of reading books or textbooks that does not fit on my age and I'd crossed my path with this one and got to talk to someone I don't really know and I just feel bad like I feel I'm kind a rude and I'm answering or questioning you rudely or maybe just an overthinking
Dark
Hypnosis is not real
Tushal
Debate question: the social engineering is the dark side of the psychology? what do you guys think
Josue Reply
It's most used in hacking for Phishing, Clickjacking etc. I think yes, It's dark side of psychology
SXTRND
If used incorrectly it can be devastating,though social engineering isn't a bad thing
Tushal
It can be beneficial as well
Tushal
What was social gathering like in ancient times?
Sonic Reply
no
abdul
that is really hard to descibe
dawn
Imagine a social gathering today but with different culture, language, tonality, expression, climate, clothing, agriculture etc etc. And there you have it. A question could be...why you asked that question to begin with...are you insinuating that they were different in ancient times?
Paddy
They were the same except people back then were ruled by monarchs and now we have free will. But yes we can change and adapt, be united
Tushal
how do i know if i have a personality disorder? and no, i dont have insurance
Eduardo Reply
Dude see a psychiatrist. If you need "insurance" then ask you friends and family members if you start behaving like someone eles
Tushal
i can't see ur whole line
Neetu Reply
tap 'more" to see the whole paragraph
Milky

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