<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Psychotherapy: behavior therapy

In psychoanalysis    , therapists help their patients look into their past to uncover repressed feelings. In behavior therapy    , a therapist employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors—rather than digging deeply into one’s unconscious. Therapists with this orientation believe that dysfunctional behaviors, like phobias and bedwetting, can be changed by teaching clients new, more constructive behaviors. Behavior therapy employs both classical and operant conditioning techniques to change behavior.

One type of behavior therapy utilizes classical conditioning techniques. Therapists using these techniques believe that dysfunctional behaviors are conditioned responses. Applying the conditioning principles developed by Ivan Pavlov, these therapists seek to recondition their clients and thus change their behavior. Emmie is eight years old, and frequently wets her bed at night. She’s been invited to several sleepovers, but she won’t go because of her problem. Using a type of conditioning therapy, Emmie begins to sleep on a liquid-sensitive bed pad that is hooked to an alarm. When moisture touches the pad, it sets off the alarm, waking up Emmie. When this process is repeated enough times, Emmie develops an association between urinary relaxation and waking up, and this stops the bedwetting. Emmie has now gone three weeks without wetting her bed and is looking forward to her first sleepover this weekend.

One commonly used classical conditioning therapeutic technique is counterconditioning    : a client learns a new response to a stimulus that has previously elicited an undesirable behavior. Two counterconditioning techniques are aversive conditioning and exposure therapy. Aversive conditioning uses an unpleasant stimulus to stop an undesirable behavior. Therapists apply this technique to eliminate addictive behaviors, such as smoking, nail biting, and drinking. In aversion therapy, clients will typically engage in a specific behavior (such as nail biting) and at the same time are exposed to something unpleasant, such as a mild electric shock or a bad taste. After repeated associations between the unpleasant stimulus and the behavior, the client can learn to stop the unwanted behavior.

Aversion therapy has been used effectively for years in the treatment of alcoholism (Davidson, 1974; Elkins, 1991; Streeton&Whelan, 2001). One common way this occurs is through a chemically based substance known as Antabuse. When a person takes Antabuse and then consumes alcohol, uncomfortable side effects result including nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate, heart palpitations, severe headache, and shortness of breath. Antabuse is repeatedly paired with alcohol until the client associates alcohol with unpleasant feelings, which decreases the client’s desire to consume alcohol. Antabuse creates a conditioned aversion to alcohol because it replaces the original pleasure response with an unpleasant one.

In exposure therapy    , a therapist seeks to treat clients’ fears or anxiety by presenting them with the object or situation that causes their problem, with the idea that they will eventually get used to it. This can be done via reality, imagination, or virtual reality. Exposure therapy was first reported in 1924 by Mary Cover Jones, who is considered the mother of behavior therapy. Jones worked with a boy named Peter who was afraid of rabbits. Her goal was to replace Peter’s fear of rabbits with a conditioned response of relaxation, which is a response that is incompatible with fear ( [link] ). How did she do it? Jones began by placing a caged rabbit on the other side of a room with Peter while he ate his afternoon snack. Over the course of several days, Jones moved the rabbit closer and closer to where Peter was seated with his snack. After two months of being exposed to the rabbit while relaxing with his snack, Peter was able to hold the rabbit and pet it while eating (Jones, 1924).

Questions & Answers

who is Greek mythology
dusane Reply
What*
Dante
what is what?
danur
"what is Greek mythology" that's the proper question
Kyla
it is about creation of the world,god and myths
danur
what is pdychology
Thazuala Reply
what is psychology
Thazuala
a study of mind and behavior
Raman
methods of job analysis
vishal Reply
what is job analysis
vishal
place the process of creating a long-lasting memory in the typical order of occurrence
Sounny Reply
why is it that when you put all formalities in order your ability to complete a task is questioned and your self issues occur?
Carlnisha
yeah. after a research question is attained, you make a tentative statement that will either confirm your theory or not
Wayne Reply
is hypothesis first drawn before theory
Nwankwo Reply
a tentative statement that precedes the theory ascertained, so yeah
Wayne
The hypothesis is the theory. Experimentation then follows, to either confirm or deny said hypothesis/theory. Thry/Hyp-Exp-->Thry/Hyp-Exp. Process is subsequently repeated with the objective of, not so much proving the theory right, but to eliminate plausibility of said theory & prediction ability.
Ralph
Theory is basically a set of hypotheses not yet disproved, or maximally refined/perfected (if possible. Lol).
Ralph
How does cognition and memory links with perception?
Catalina Reply
let's talk Sigmund Freud psychosexual theory and psychoanalytic theory.
Catalina
sure but I dont kn now him actually so explain him
Ruth
can I ask u all a question?
Ruth Reply
no
Ximax
come on it's about profiling
Ruth
yeah
Sz
how do u know that someone is in trouble but pretend that they aren't
Ruth
you need to looks for clues. otherwise there is no ready-made answer to your question.
Paul
what if they were acting weird and want to talk but can't
Ruth
also clues like what
Ruth
how to ready human mind
Sujeet Reply
how to read human behaviour
Sujeet
Describe frontal lobe syndrome
Bridget Reply
Frontal lobe syndrome is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma. 
Zafar
what does the bell curve represent in intelligence testing?
Sounny Reply
average
Angela
I'M A VERY CURIOUS PERSON WHO LOVES TO LEARN ABOUT DIFFERENT TYPES
Sheri Reply
I AM A PERSON WHO IS NOT CHOOSING TO LET MY MENTAL HEALTH AFFECT ME AND I AM AN
Sheri
different types means.?😂😂
rilek
Indeed....different types means what exactly and how does these different types transpire into our lives? there are many different ways of allowing ourselves to accommodate and continiously play out the fact we have mental illnesses!!!
Elizabeth
social learning theory
CONFERENCE Reply
how we know the people are telling lie
Vasu
human brain
SERAJ
if you want to learn how to detect the lie you have to observe their behaviour...
Aayan
that's common things..
MOHD
anything specially, tht we can say either person is telling yes or no..?
MOHD
Yes
rochell
I believe there are many factors that play into being a human lie detector.
Tasha
all of which is governed by the human brain.
Tasha
There's no accurate method of telling someone is lying unless we know the truth ourselves. Some people, especially people with manipulative tendencies, will make a lie as believable as possible. Behaviors could tell the person is hiding something or may be feeling uncomfortable while being observed.
agii
Ex. Talking too fast while explaining a story might indicate that the person is indeed hiding something. Other than that, people, usually with histrionic personality disorder, also tend to exaggerate stories.
agii
DORFRLYN It's not easier to feel lied at first moment of talking to someone you know or you don't know. The person will be guilty of what they tell in the first sentence.They first find a way to hide the the truth. By so doing, the movement, and the head knock, this symbloyz the shift of origin
dorfrlyn
for one to tell lies, should first read the mind of the listener.
dorfrlyn
I agree with you Agil.Usually a person talks too fast,is hiding something true. But also talking too slow will mean creation of new story rather than the truth.
dorfrlyn
some people have the habit of speaking too fast, so in that case how can we identify whether the person is lying or not?
Labdhee
pay attention on facial expressions
El
When people talk too fast to the point that it's incomprehensible, it could mean that that person is trying to have you move one from one topic to another to prevent you from asking questions.
agii
observe micro expressions
Zafar
thanks to all for giving ans😃
Vasu
I want to learn more about psychodynamic personality theory
MsPam
MsPam Ware send me you email ... I just did a paper on Psychodynamic ...I can email it to you .. you may find it useful
Shanelle
Just wrapped a blackboard discussion on that! Theory is a great class. :)
Rachael
what if somebody answers questions quickly because they have social anxiety
Ashley
detecting lies is easier than many think. the dynamics of listening, body language, facial expression, story line, deductive reasoning and most of all analytical skills all play a role in determining if someone is lying. micro expressions can be very hard to discern requiring close analysis!
Kyth
Any recommendations for apps related to positive psychology?
Andrew Reply
intresting I mean
Asfand
Sometimes if you type "positive psychology " in your play store, you'll get some good ones
Tahmetrea
I use Awakenings by Iyanla Vanzant... She have a positive outlook on life. She's awesome!
Tahmetrea
Thank you, I will check that out.
Andrew
CBT types?
Rachael
psychology FACTS
katy
ITS SUPER EASY TO USE ... and divides the kind of positive psychology your looking for into groups! check it out.
katy
mental association books?
Maya
CBT works, and I am also looking for a psych book to read... I like psychology facts
Andrew
anyone know about any bipolar advocate groups or support type groups where a person can talk n vent while remaining anonymous?
tonya
HI I'M SHERI AND IN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE BIPOLAR SUPPORT GROUPS I LIVE IN SACRAMENTO CALIFORNIA AND I DO KNOW THAT THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT GROUPS 1) WELLNESS RECOVERY PROGRAMS AND I KNOW OF 2 LOCATIONS ONE ON MARCONI IN NORTH SACRAMENTO AND ON BOWLING OFF FLORIN IN SOUTH SACRAMENTO
Sheri
what's the most common cause of suicide in adolescents
Aisha Reply
depression
Irfan
yes. it's depression.
Paul
Especially when adolescents go through identity issues. Not knowing if this boy wants to be a girl or vice or versa. Social awkwardness, depression and cruelty of other adolescents in my opinion, brings a lot of suicidal tendencies into the minds of them.
Tahmetrea
reasons that lead to depression caused by many reasons like rape, abusive parents or guardians, bullying and more causes for a person to suicide
Diana
not accepting the fact or situation or the reality. the adolescents can't face rejections, as soon as they are rejected , they commit suicide.
Labdhee
social pressures have a huge impact on this. I find that young people are more likely to take their own life because they feel they are not able to fit in to a particular group of society and feel they are criticised by others. environment and nature/nurture. identity is a huge factor.
Jody
I think a major problem is when someone feels they can't handle the situation or think it's out of the control even though there are a lot of ways to solve it, one of them being at least trying to tell someone, visit a psychologist. They might stop feeling alone/misunderstood by everyone else.
Thuy
well, I've a problem. I feel very conscious when I'm in a crowd. when I'm partying with friends, I feels like everyone is looking at me. when I look at them, each one of them have their eyes on me. I don't know how I should deal with this? can someone help me with that ?
puneet
Hey Puneet! I think it's the matter of time and getting comfortable in that kind of situation after you try to get out of your comfort zone and slowly get used to it. I used to have that problem too but then I acted to not give a 💩 and tried my best to pretend I didn't care at all. And it worked!
Thuy
*Fake it till you make it* in this case worked for me the best. Maybe you could try to start talking to one of the more open/friendly people in that group so you don't get that self-conscious. I'm sure they don't think they will judge you at all! Just do it!
Thuy
Bullying that leads to anxiety, shame and depression, sadly.
Rachael

Get the best Psychology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Psychology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask