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Psychoanalysis is a therapy approach that typically takes years. Over the course of time, the patient reveals a great deal about himself to the therapist. Freud suggested that during this patient-therapist relationship, the patient comes to develop strong feelings for the therapist—maybe positive feelings, maybe negative feelings. Freud called this transference    : the patient transfers all the positive or negative emotions associated with the patient’s other relationships to the psychoanalyst. For example, Crystal is seeing a psychoanalyst. During the years of therapy, she comes to see her therapist as a father figure. She transfers her feelings about her father onto her therapist, perhaps in an effort to gain the love and attention she did not receive from her own father.

This photograph shows what Freud’s famous psychoanalytic couch looked like. The couch is draped in tapestries and pillows, and the room is decorated with sculptures, books and pictures on the wall.
This is the famous couch in Freud’s consulting room. Patients were instructed to lie comfortably on the couch and to face away from Freud in order to feel less inhibited and to help them focus. Today, a psychotherapy patient is not likely to lie on a couch; instead he is more likely to sit facing the therapist (Prochaska&Norcross, 2010). (credit: Robert Huffstutter)

Today, Freud’s psychoanalytical perspective has been expanded upon by the developments of subsequent theories and methodologies: the psychodynamic perspective. This approach to therapy remains centered on the role of people’s internal drives and forces, but treatment is less intensive than Freud’s original model.

Psychotherapy: play therapy

Play therapy is often used with children since they are not likely to sit on a couch and recall their dreams or engage in traditional talk therapy. This technique uses a therapeutic process of play to “help clients prevent or resolve psychosocial difficulties and achieve optimal growth” (O’Connor, 2000, p. 7). The idea is that children play out their hopes, fantasies, and traumas while using dolls, stuffed animals, and sandbox figurines ( [link] ). Play therapy can also be used to help a therapist make a diagnosis. The therapist observes how the child interacts with toys (e.g., dolls, animals, and home settings) in an effort to understand the roots of the child’s disturbed behavior. Play therapy can be nondirective or directive. In nondirective play therapy, children are encouraged to work through their problems by playing freely while the therapist observes (LeBlanc&Ritchie, 2001). In directive play therapy, the therapist provides more structure and guidance in the play session by suggesting topics, asking questions, and even playing with the child (Harter, 1977).

This photograph shows a person playing with objects in a small box filled with sand. The person is organizing these objects and small play figures in a form of treatment called sandplay.
This type of play therapy is known as sandplay or sandtray therapy. Children can set up a three-dimensional world using various figures and objects that correspond to their inner state (Kalff, 1991). (credit: Kristina Walter)

Questions & Answers

The scope of Experimental Psychology is widening with the invention of new tools and instruments for experiments.
Den Reply
like what kind?
MissRoyal
hello, what kind of people talk throught here
Marcela Reply
the kind looking for answers
Juan
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John
thought is autonomous. it is up to us compartmentalizing these random various thoughts that we too often incorrectly give them the title of (ideas)
John
what is the scope of experimental psychology?
Fareha
who is pavlo
ROGATH Reply
he believed in classic conditioning
just
he created classical conditioning
naina
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
lavanya
Hello... Gyatri, angel and thinker.. I am MJ.
Mujtaba Reply
hi
naina
Hello
Jeanica
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Mujtaba
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Mujtaba
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Jeanica
Where are you from?
Jeanica
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Aspen
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Aspen
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kumpulan
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Luis
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Luis
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artgalang
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Jeanica
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Mujtaba
Hi
Red
Hi
Esther
Hello
Jeanica
You @Aspen u are jus a biscuit kid.. And loly pop in mouth
Mujtaba
hello^^
Girlie
is this a Psychology Course GC?
artgalang
Hi I'm from Philippines 🇵🇭
Esther
hellow
Erick
Can anyone.... What is basic criteria for abnormalities...?
Mujtaba
Is here any psychologist or psychiatrist.
Mujtaba
hi Jeanica yes I know that 😊
Luis
hello
Fermin
yes psychologist I am
kirti
me too
artgalang
Can you please explain me Diathesis stress model and its application
Mujtaba
And how can it applied..
Mujtaba
What is randomization
Joseph Reply
definition of stimulus
Thomas Reply
an idea, object or effect via the help of a mediational process which elicits a response
Wayne
please explain me clinical studies
abril Reply
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
what are the characteristics of learning?
steve Reply
The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifetime. To understand how people learn, it is necessary to understand what happens to the individual during the process. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views
MUBARAK
Psychologists generally agree there are many characteristics of learning.
MUBARAK
Learning is the process by which one acquires, ingests, and stores or accepts information. The main characteristic of learning that; it is a process of obtaining knowledge to change human behavior through interaction, practice, and experience.
MUBARAK
Our experiences with learned information compose our bodies of knowledge.
MUBARAK
Is there not one universal understanding or relatable emotion whether physical or communicated verbally they could Trigger empathy?
Tory
what is immune system
Amanda Reply
a complex network of cells that protects the body against infection
Stephen
Sorry. Cells and proteins
Stephen
what is perspectives
acholonu Reply
someones point of view the way ur brain sees the way situations unfold
Echo
perspective is your view on topics
Trish
Perspective is your opinion on certain situations
Connie
your perspective is your interpretation of what is being said and done around you and how you hear and view them .
Jim
is this in reference to any particular use of the word? Because there are also the 7 major "perspectives" in psychology: psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological, cross-cultural, evolutionary, & humanistic
Alex
aren't they like schemas of the world, the future and yourself
naina
Perspective is your opinion on things that you feel, think or hear.
hiba
I'm trying to write a paper about video game and violence and suggestions or researches would help with this
rebal
do you also have to write about aggression and how its linked to video games and violence
naina
because for alevel psychology we could have a 16 marker essay for how media influences aggression which basically includes video games and violence on tv shows
naina
yes basically I'm arguing that video games cause violence not necessarily in a direct way but it plays apart. I'm trying to oppose the popular opinion of video games doesn't cause violence
rebal
It's not connected that much actually tbh
Kira
the way we think
according to my textbook rebal
naina
there is a lab study by Craig an Anderson- computer games mortal combat
naina
Matt delisi et al did a correlation study
naina
Lindsay Robertson et al - longitudinal study
naina
Craig Anderson also did a meta analysis of 136 studies
naina
I will check them thanks naina
rebal
Yes, that would be my recommendation.
Ashley Reply
merits and demerits of observation as a method of studying human behavior in education psychology
Khadija Reply
what is psychology
Khadija
psychology: scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
Ahmed
how to mind reading?
UMESH
how to face reading
UMESH
energy and thought will give mind spirit and proper exercises , flexibility and making mind readind easier
Ahmed
How to read microexpresions easier?
Edg
scope of educationnalpsycology
USMAN
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dearbhlagh
what do you need help with ?
Keiko
The better question is how much?
Pixeled
🥒🍑😩💦
Jacob
hey all I'm Beth I just started psych 101 have 1st test any suggestions I should memorize ?
Bethany Reply
memorize dememorizing
devesh
how the blinds person his dream
Ahmed
Hi! I started as well
La
what is prototype
Arnav Reply
what is event schema
Arnav
Event schema is how you deal with situations is this installation is good you gonna handle a great but if it's badd you have to be strong I handle it the best way you can and stay positive
Connie
why do we adapt to negative events more quickly as compared to the positive ones?
Fareha
The negative ones are easier to adapt because of the people the we surround ourselves with if we surround ourselves with negative people who go to see things negatively but if we surround ourselves with positive people we are going to see things more positive
Connie
oh ok thanks!
Fareha
your welcome
Connie
what are the remedy for ADHD
anagha Reply
methylphenidate
Maryjade

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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