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A checklist contains three sections, titled “Sign in,” “Time out,” and “Sign out.” The section titled “Sign in” begins, “Before induction of anesthesia, members of the team (at least the nurse and an anesthesia professional) orally confirm that.” A bulleted list below this text contains four items. The first list item reads, “The patient has verified his or her identity, the surgical site and procedure, and consent.
The surgical site is marked or site marking is not applicable.
The pulse oximeter is on the patient and functioning.” The second list item reads, “All members of the team are aware of whether the patient has a known allergy.” The third list item reads, “The patient’s airway and risk of aspiration have been evaluated and appropriate equipment and assistance are available.” The fourth list item reads, “If there is a risk of blood loss of at least 500 ml (or 7 ml/kg of body weight, in children), appropriate access and fluids are available.” The section titled “Time out” begins, “Before skin incision, the entire team (nurses, surgeons, anesthesia professionals, and any others participating in the care of the patient) orally.” The bulleted list below contains “Confirms that all team members have been introduced by name and role. Confirms the patient’s identity, surgical site, and procedure. Reviews the anticipated critical events.” This first bullet has three sub-bullets that read, “Surgeon reviews critical and unexpected steps, operative duration, and anticipated blood loss; Anesthesia staff review concerns specific to the patient; Nursing staff review confirmation of sterility, equipment availability, and other concerns.” The following two bullets read: Confirms that prophylactic antibiotics have been administered = 60 min before incision is made or that antibiotics are not indicated” and “Confirms that all essential imaging results for the correct patient are displayed in the operating room.” The section titled “Sign out” reads “Before the patient leaves the operating room.” Following this are two bullet points. The first reads “Nurse reviews items aloud with the team.” This bullet has four sub-bullets that read “Name of the procedure as recorded; That the needle, sponge, and instrument counts are complete (or not applicable); That the specimen (if any) is correctly labeled, including with the patient’s name; Whether there are issues with equipment to be addressed.” The final bullet reads “The surgeon, nurse, and anesthesia professional review aloud the key concerns for the recovery and care of the patient.”
Checklists, such as the WHO surgical checklist shown here, help reduce workplace accidents.

Safety concerns also lead to limits to how long an operator, such as a pilot or truck driver, is allowed to operate the equipment. Recently the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) introduced limits for how long a pilot is allowed to fly without an overnight break.

Howell (2003) outlines some important areas of research and practice in the field of human factors. These are summarized in [link] .

Areas of study in human factors psychology
Area Description I-O Questions
Attention Includes vigilance and monitoring, recognizing signals in noise, mental resources, and divided attention How is attention maintained? What about tasks maintains attention? How to design systems to support attention?
Cognitive engineering Includes human software interactions in complex automated systems, especially the decision-making processes of workers as they are supported by the software system How do workers use and obtain information provided by software?
Task analysis Breaking down the elements of a task How can a task be performed more efficiently? How can a task be performed more safely?
Cognitive task analysis Breaking down the elements of a cognitive task How are decisions made?

As an example of research in human factors psychology Bruno&Abrahão (2012) examined the impact of the volume of operator decisions on the accuracy of decisions made within an information security center at a banking institution in Brazil. The study examined a total of about 45,000 decisions made by 35 operators and 4 managers over a period of 60 days. Their study found that as the number of decisions made per day by the operators climbed, that is, as their cognitive effort increased, the operators made more mistakes in falsely identifying incidents as real security breaches (when, in reality, they were not). Interestingly, the opposite mistake of identifying real intrusions as false alarms did not increase with increased cognitive demand. This appears to be good news for the bank, since false alarms are not as costly as incorrectly rejecting a genuine threat. These kinds of studies combine research on attention, perception, teamwork, and human–computer interactions in a field of considerable societal and business significance. This is exactly the context of the events that led to the massive data breach for Target in the fall of 2013. Indications are that security personnel received signals of a security breach but did not interpret them correctly, thus allowing the breach to continue for two weeks until an outside agency, the FBI, informed the company (Riley, Elgin, Lawrence,&Matlack, 2014).

Summary

Human factors psychology, or ergonomics, studies the interface between workers and their machines and physical environments. Human factors psychologists specifically seek to design machines to better support the workers using them. Psychologists may be involved in design of work tools such as software, displays, or machines from the beginning of the design process or during the testing an already developed product. Human factor psychologists are also involved in the development of best design recommendations and regulations. One important aspect of human factors psychology is enhancing worker safety. Human factors research involves efforts to understand and improve interactions between technology systems and their human operators. Human–software interactions are a large sector of this research.

Personal application

Describe an example of a technology or team and technology interaction that you have had in the context of school or work that could have benefited from better design. What were the effects of the poor design? Make one suggestion for its improvement.

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Questions & Answers

behavioristic approach of personality
Kritika Reply
Are Psychology and Political Science connected? also.. Can a psychologist be a politician?
Tanvi Reply
psychology is considered under social science so yeah I guess
not
yes.. because he can analyze voters mind.. he knows how to motivate them for his political career..
An
for example.. Dr. Rajashekar Reddy.. Ex CM for Andhrapradesh was a doctor.!
An
thank you..I would like to know more about ths from different people!
Tanvi
you've mentally and emotionally made yourself attached and brainwashed wanting their presents and approval of you and your life in their life. rejection is a fickle condition of love and hate
Kim Reply
can I get note on exploratory behavior and curiousity
Irm
why is hard to move on in a relationship
chantel Reply
psychology study tips..as I find very difficult to understand the content
Faazi Reply
psychology study tips for ma entrance exam..I find very difficult to find the content
Kritika
Why is it so hard to move on after a romantic relationship ends & one is left without any closure?
Dee Reply
It is due to one's reasoning and understanding
joseph
a sort of mental connection doesn't allow detachment for a period of time
Tanisha
what are the symptoms of severe depression
Ramesh Reply
suicidal ideations
Susie
sleep or insomnia, loss of interest in activities that you use to enjoy, feeling hopeless, doomed, suicidal thoughts...
Dee
1. Aside Insomia, hypersomia is also a symptom. There will be excessive sleeping almost everyday. 2. Significant weight loss or gain. 3. Impaired concentration, disorganized thoughts and indecisiveness.
Michael
loss of interests in daily activities
jyothi
Fade up on things around
joseph
what is legal right
Ramesh Reply
Legal right are those right that are protected by the statutory law
joseph
what are the goal of Psychology
Ruth Reply
The four main goals of psychology are todescribe, explain, predict and control the behavior and mental processes of others
Charmaine
👍yes
bandanamayee
The goal of psychology is to predict, control and explain human behavior.
Vijay
manic. If someone is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, but doesn't see it fit because they say they have never been manic, do you think they are right, or do you think they don't realize when they are manic?
kimberly Reply
Thank you for your input! I didn't know other personality disorders could cause mania, I look forward to continuing research
kimberly
I think it's more they don't realise because they don't want to it themselves
Charmaine
Good question. Firstly, some personality disorders also exhibit mania. as a sufferer, you live for the mania, its like your sociable, energy of your 20s on a saturday night thing. plus the best mood ever. thing is youre at your most vulnerable whilst at your most risk taking state.it causes issues
Tu
mental health isnt optional. theres no off and on.
Tu
I not saying there a of on button, am saying sometime it's hard for someone to come to terms that they have , they dont want to believe it
Charmaine
for some a diagnosis is a relief, an explination, a "finally" its a huge moment as at times there is complete ignorance but a lot of questions
Tu
I personally myself was diagnosed with bipolar disorder at age 6 it was a misdiagnosis no one even accounted for the reasons why bipolar wasn't the right fit. I have been diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder.
Sarah
same here. how did you feel about the rediagnosis? bpd?
Tu
I am the one who brought it up to the therapist and psychiatrist. I won't deny that I have I actually prefer this diagnosis than bipolar disorder
Sarah
I don't get manic my adhd is what kicks in
Sarah
thank you so much for sharing. im sure its psych porn. but how does acepting your diagnosis feel like to you. i feel mines not correct.
Tu
sadly there isnt much academia surrounding either mania, or personality diagnosed.
Tu
@Tu Verus. I feel that with the acceptance of this diagnosis and knowing that it is correct actually helps me. it helps me understand who I am why I am that way and what I can do to change. if you consistently feel like the diagnosis you have been given is wrong you become less confident.
Sarah
I was manic out In the yard talking in tongues until I took lithium
stephenie
concise. thank you. i hope it fidnt bring to much stress
Tu
lol, didnt.
Tu
Do people know when they are manic?
kimberly Reply
manic or panic?
Diksha
example: feel confident to venture out. manic 1 - good mood 5 wake up in a strange place with either a lot or no money on you, empty bank account, 50 new numbers on your phone and feel great about it manic 5 good mood 5
Tu
i think its panic of people they know if they are confused
Masozi
i believe that it really depends on how well a person knows themselves and whether or not they can identify their symptoms of their diagnosis. I personally panic due to a severe type of anxiety disorder. perception of one's self is important to distinguish otherwise it's speculation.
Sarah
ive learnt signs or situations that the situation is changing. sadly i dont always catch it
Tu
yeah... I agree with you@ Sarah Earing, one has to understand him/herself well enough to know when he/she is panicking..... and one true tell tale sign to know when you are panicking is being nervous, your hands, voice and even the whole body begins to shake... depending on how panicked you feel
Jordan
yes very true also when I panic not only do my hands voice and body shake I have a tendency to become very irritable and my confidence level declines and I usually feel dumb or stupid because I don't know how to respond and react in certain situations.
Sarah
which part of brain is responsible for dreaming pls tell as soon as possible
YASHASVI Reply
pls tell
YASHASVI
brain stem of cortex
jyothi
hello! I'm looking for some online internships anyone can please suggest from where I can proceed?
Prachi Reply
Try UIBS, New Delhi They have one of the best faculty.
Talha
they have their offical website ?
Prachi
Yes, they do
Talha
uibsdel.org
Talha
which sub field in psychology do you want to go to study for?
Jade Reply
Probably forensic psychology haha
ilinca
foresic psychology
MIDHUN
clinical psychology
Masozi
behavioural psy
bandanamayee
clinical psychology
Nitin
clinical psychology
Christ
Forensics psychology
Michelle
clinical psychology
oshin
Brain
Ajay
forensic psychology or clinical psychology
Charmaine
i want clinical psych and councellor
Ruff
Clinical Psychology
Kaiser
military psychology
YASHASVI
how can I help you
Brandon
which one is the best?
MH
military psychology is the best
YASHASVI
military psychology? is this a real thing?
Muryum
yes it is
Sunday
I like all of them
May
hello guys, can u explain what's military psychology.
Akshay
how can a optimistic can define himself.
Tayyab Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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