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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Understand educational requirements for careers in academic settings
  • Understand the demands of a career in an academic setting
  • Understand career options outside of academic settings

Psychologists can work in many different places doing many different things. In general, anyone wishing to continue a career in psychology at a 4-year institution of higher education will have to earn a doctoral degree in psychology for some specialties and at least a master’s degree for others. In most areas of psychology, this means earning a PhD in a relevant area of psychology. Literally, PhD    refers to a doctor of philosophy degree, but here, philosophy does not refer to the field of philosophy per se. Rather, philosophy in this context refers to many different disciplinary perspectives that would be housed in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences.

The requirements to earn a PhD vary from country to country and even from school to school, but usually, individuals earning this degree must complete a dissertation. A dissertation    is essentially a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that was conducted as a part of the candidate’s doctoral training. In the United States, a dissertation generally has to be defended before a committee of expert reviewers before the degree is conferred ( [link] ).

A photograph shows several people are gathered outdoors wearing caps and gowns in a graduation ceremony.
Doctoral degrees are generally conferred in formal ceremonies involving special attire and rites. (credit: Public Affairs Office Fort Wainwright)

Once someone earns her PhD, she may seek a faculty appointment at a college or university. Being on the faculty of a college or university often involves dividing time between teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession. The amount of time spent on each of these primary responsibilities varies dramatically from school to school, and it is not uncommon for faculty to move from place to place in search of the best personal fit among various academic environments. The previous section detailed some of the major areas that are commonly represented in psychology departments around the country; thus, depending on the training received, an individual could be anything from a biological psychologist to a clinical psychologist in an academic setting ( [link] ).

A pie chart is labeled “Percent of 2009 Psychology Doctorates Employed in Different Sectors.” The percentage breakdown is University: 26%, Hospital or health service: 25%, Government/VA medical center: 16%, Business or nonprofit: 10%, Other educational institutions: 8%, and Medical school: 6%, Independent practice: 6%. Beneath the pie chart, the label reads: “Source: Michalski, Kohout, Wicherski, & Hart, 2011.”
Individuals earning a PhD in psychology have a range of employment options.

Other careers in academic settings

Often times, schools offer more courses in psychology than their full-time faculty can teach. In these cases, it is not uncommon to bring in an adjunct faculty member or instructor. Adjunct faculty members and instructors usually have an advanced degree in psychology, but they often have primary careers outside of academia and serve in this role as a secondary job. Alternatively, they may not hold the doctoral degree required by most 4-year institutions and use these opportunities to gain experience in teaching. Furthermore, many 2-year colleges and schools need faculty to teach their courses in psychology. In general, many of the people who pursue careers at these institutions have master’s degrees in psychology, although some PhDs make careers at these institutions as well.

Questions & Answers

hello what For u wanted to talk
Abhilasha Reply
I want talk about Psychology
Dharma
Ok
Roda
Re you there
Roda
yeah
Dharma
hello
Angela
Where can I find a standardized questionnaire for my research entitled Social media and it's relation to social behavior?
Geo
anyone?
Geo
is this effective as a treatment generally?
RebeccaBeki Reply
psychological treatment stands a great role in complete recovery
Dr
hi mam
Dharma
hi
javed
hi
Dharma
my name is Muhammad Javed
javed
help me
javed
hello
tshukashi
hello
Renu
anyone know tamil
Dharma
I know tamil
Pon
how I contact to you
Dharma
Discuss the historical development of intelligence testing.
Surey Reply
Maybe it's more important to study different fields because there could be a link between them all.
Heidi Reply
yes
Shagufta
Discuss the historical development of intelligence testing.
Surey
how can you knew prevent sexual
Francis Reply
How do you deal with a person who is a narcissist?
Michelle Reply
Avoid contact with them or try Grey Rock method. ofc don't let them feel they r being ignored otherwise its gna get lot worse.
James
1. Learning about how the mind works (interpreting our thoughts/logic/reasoning) can be applied to philosophy; 2. Learnsing the anatomy & physiology of our brain & body can be applied to biology; 3. Studying a person's behavior & their social interactions with other people correlates with sociology.
Emelda Reply
plz share it experience
Dr
*Our* own individual perceptions of how things work will only be *our* truth unless convinced otherwise by evidence from outside resources.
Heidi Reply
what is psychology
Antwi Reply
psychology is a systematic study about human brain,mind, thinking pattern, and cognition.
Grashela
psychology is the scientific study of behaviour of it's mental processes.
Peter
hi
igbacher
how are you doing
igbacher
how can I meet a psychology doc
igbacher Reply
example of a case study
Kathryn Reply
how does the Constitution of the body affect growth and development
Jasmine Reply
Describe the primary emotions
Kudzai Reply
anger, fear, disgust, sadness, surprise, anticipation, trust and joy are the 8 primary emotions
Deanna
why did Sena did nt get infected and die?
Nicollette
hi what's the reason we couldn't sleep at night
Mustakim Reply
hello there, reasons depends upon the person. most famous reasons are Stress, Anxiety, Overthinking, Had adequately slept in other times of Day, Sleeping Disorders, etc.,
Mushtaque
how do we define the term learning
Nysa Reply
how many total types of psychotherapy ?
Sajjad

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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