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An advertisement reads: “Public Announcement. We will pay you $4.00 for one hour of your time. Persons Needed for a Study of Memory. We will pay five hundred New Haven men to help us complete a scientific study of memory and learning. The study is being done at Yale University. Each person who participates will be paid $4.00 (plus 50 cents carfare) for approximately 1 hour’s time. We need you for only one hour: there are no further obligations. You may choose the time you would like to come (evenings, weekdays, or weekends). No special training, education, or experience is needed. We want: factory workers, city employees, laborers, barbers, businessmen, clerks, professional people, telephone workers, construction workers, salespeople, white-collar workers, and others. All persons must be between the ages of 20 and 50. High school and college students cannot be used. If you meet these qualifications, fill out the coupon below and mail it now to Professor Stanley Milgram, Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven. You will be notified later of the specific time and place of the study. We reserve the right to decline any application. You will be paid $4.00 (plus 50 cents carfare) as soon as you arrive at the laboratory.” There is a dotted line and the below section reads: “TO: PROF. STANLEY MILGRAM, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY, YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN, CONN. I want to take part in this study of memory and learning. I am between the ages of 20 and 50. I will be paid $4.00 (plus 50 cents carfare) if I participate.” Below this is a section to be filled out by the applicant. The fields are NAME (Please Print), ADDRESS, TELEPHONE NO. Best time to call you, AGE, OCCUPATION, SEX, CAN YOU COME: WEEKDAYS, EVENINGS, WEEKENDS.
Stanley Milgram’s research demonstrated just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure. This advertisement was used to recruit subjects for his research.

Industrial-organizational psychology

Industrial-Organizational psychology (I-O psychology) is a subfield of psychology that applies psychological theories, principles, and research findings in industrial and organizational settings. I-O psychologists are often involved in issues related to personnel management, organizational structure, and workplace environment. Businesses often seek the aid of I-O psychologists to make the best hiring decisions as well as to create an environment that results in high levels of employee productivity and efficiency. In addition to its applied nature, I-O psychology also involves conducting scientific research on behavior within I-O settings (Riggio, 2013).

Health psychology

Health psychology focuses on how health is affected by the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. This particular approach is known as the biopsychosocial model    ( [link] ). Health psychologists are interested in helping individuals achieve better health through public policy, education, intervention, and research. Health psychologists might conduct research that explores the relationship between one’s genetic makeup, patterns of behavior, relationships, psychological stress, and health. They may research effective ways to motivate people to address patterns of behavior that contribute to poorer health (MacDonald, 2013).

Three circles overlap in the middle. The circles are labeled Biological, Psychological, and Social.
The biopsychosocial model suggests that health/illness is determined by an interaction of these three factors.

Sport and exercise psychology

Researchers in sport and exercise psychology    study the psychological aspects of sport performance, including motivation and performance anxiety, and the effects of sport on mental and emotional wellbeing. Research is also conducted on similar topics as they relate to physical exercise in general. The discipline also includes topics that are broader than sport and exercise but that are related to interactions between mental and physical performance under demanding conditions, such as fire fighting, military operations, artistic performance, and surgery.

Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is the area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior. As such, it is generally considered to be a more applied area within psychology; however, some clinicians are also actively engaged in scientific research. Counseling psychology is a similar discipline that focuses on emotional, social, vocational, and health-related outcomes in individuals who are considered psychologically healthy.

As mentioned earlier, both Freud and Rogers provided perspectives that have been influential in shaping how clinicians interact with people seeking psychotherapy. While aspects of the psychoanalytic theory are still found among some of today’s therapists who are trained from a psychodynamic perspective, Roger’s ideas about client-centered therapy have been especially influential in shaping how many clinicians operate. Furthermore, both behaviorism and the cognitive revolution have shaped clinical practice in the forms of behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy ( [link] ). Issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and problematic patterns of behavior will be discussed in detail in later chapters of this textbook.

Questions & Answers

how did psychology begin?
Valerie Reply
of psychologys commencement, the traces can be seen in the work of Aristotle, where he talk about soul and body, likewise work in durrant, de anima, all these were somewhere supporting dualism, in which soul could exist separately from body
amaan
but if you talk about the moder psychology, Gustav fechner, is credited with performing scientific experiments, basis of his experiments in psychology with his studies perception.
amaan
does psychology deal with love?
Mohammed Reply
Maybe, i think
edem
I definitely would say yes
Clara
how so
Isaiah
*triarchic
Meredith
there are so many different reasons why you can fall in love with someone, many of them develope subconsciously -> psychology
Clara
love messes with the brain, a lot, ergo I believe that Psychology does indeed deal with love
what is synapse
Katie Reply
In the central nervous system, a synapse is a small gap at the end of a neuron that allows a signal to pass from one neuron to the next. synapse are found where nerve cells connect with other nerve cells
Najeem
can you do auto book auto
Mariah Reply
WHT u mean?
usef
yes
MD
heyy, may i join the conversation please?
edem Reply
who is the father of psychology
Richy Reply
aristatil
Ramadevi
and please, how would you guys, describe the study of psychology at college ?
edem
psychologist student?
Aspen
i mean not yet but am about to start college so wanna know how is it(college in general and psychology course) please
edem
Psychology is the study of mind and behaviour. So if you will take psychology as a subject so you will get to know how your everything (physical, mental, social, spiritual aspects) effects your behaviour
sakina
With this brief knowledge you can help people to cope up with their problems and only you can guide them correctly
sakina
And if you go for further specialisations you can study hypnosis, face reading, body language etc
sakina
Thanks a lot🙏🏾 And ik some of the stuffs u said but i am also going to write thesis, right ?
edem
ok no prob, thanks a lot🙏🏾✨
edem
cerebellum
Khan
hae everyone, hope you are well this evning my question is what is the difference between drive and motivation
Michael
good question
Rainee
drive is more like an impulse or urge and i think they both go together (drive and motivation) even if there is a slight difference
edem
@ Michael Drive is delivered to be innate without the use of an external stimuli, motivation normally evolves an outside stimuli which may include praise, appreciate, or reward.
Reginald
*believed...sorry for typo
Reginald
@Reginald, can't the motivation come from the inner self?
edem
Good question, please give an example.
Reginald
can we say desire of success for example
edem
Wilhelm Wundt is the father of psychology
ipau
Wilhem Wundt thank you for the road that you opened.
Qwanta
You mean who is the father of having a great educated argumentative guess? nothing is more wrong than this question. The question is you should ask yourselfs is, how sure are you abour their scientific studying? one's percieved assimilated approach to judging another person and saying they are
Roger
the biggest problem with scientific research and data is that ya you could get the same result 1000 times then it could go the other way 1000 times, but we would never know that and we did, we would still say ya but the proof is there. The only thing science proves is that humanity has
Roger
no facts about human behavior in the scientific context, but more in the trial and error.. sorry to tell you, but so far no one has proven Father of anything, thats up to you and i, judgement is bias, science is good enough lazy
Roger
cognitive development is the growing and development of the brain.
Jessy Reply
Anyone knows about Techno-fascism?
Hussein Reply
Ecofascism is a theoretical political model in which an authoritarian government would require individuals to sacrifice their own interests to the "organic whole of nature". The term is also used as a rhetorical pejorative to undermine the environmental movement.
ipau
what's the big difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Danice Reply
A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude.  Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them.  Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior
Nancy Lee
hi
basher
hello
Rahul
what is all about cognitive development?
Kamohelo
cognitive development is the growing and development of the brain
Jessy
how do you control a variable when using spss whilst running a pearsons correlation analysis?
Jessie Reply
it dependa on your study. according to what you want to say and explain your result
Pouran
why does it say her and she
Jayla Reply
stages of cognitive development
brivia Reply
sensory preoperatinal concrete formal
Rajendra
what is psychology
Chethani Reply
the study of insecurities and the effect on the host .
Sera
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior & mental processes
Angela
psychology is science about learning human behaviour
Zhamshid
behaviorosm
Khan
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
Nene Reply
what is reward
Angeles Reply
reward is a technique to change behaviour
Rajendra
Reward is a way to promote a specific behaviour or to teach someone/ something to behave a specific way or perform a specific task.
Johan
a reward is something that is usually associated with desirable behavior. The child got a reward for winning the game. A reinforcer is different in that a reinforcer is anything that increases behavior, even if it is increasing an undesirable behavior.
Meredith
reward is earned effort realized
freweini

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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