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Structuralism, Freud, and the Gestalt psychologists were all concerned in one way or another with describing and understanding inner experience. But other researchers had concerns that inner experience could be a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and chose instead to exclusively study behavior, the objectively observable outcome of mental processes.

Pavlov, watson, skinner, and behaviorism

Early work in the field of behavior was conducted by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936). Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex, in which an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus. The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivation in response to the presence of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound, that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response to the second stimulus was “learned,” the food stimulus could be omitted. Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists.

John B. Watson (1878–1958) was an influential American psychologist whose most famous work occurred during the early 20th century at Johns Hopkins University ( [link] ). While Wundt and James were concerned with understanding conscious experience, Watson thought that the study of consciousness was flawed. Because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible, Watson preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control. Watson was a major proponent of shifting the focus of psychology from the mind to behavior, and this approach of observing and controlling behavior came to be known as behaviorism    . A major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism. Behaviorism commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior. Indeed, Tolman (1938) stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology (except … such matters as involve society and words) can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.”

A photograph shows John B. Watson.
John B. Watson is known as the father of behaviorism within psychology.

Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today (Thorne&Henley, 2005). Behaviorism is largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and especially experimentation. In addition, it is used in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavior modification is commonly used in classroom settings. Behaviorism has also led to research on environmental influences on human behavior.

Questions & Answers

behavioristic approach of personality
Kritika Reply
Are Psychology and Political Science connected? also.. Can a psychologist be a politician?
Tanvi Reply
psychology is considered under social science so yeah I guess
yes.. because he can analyze voters mind.. he knows how to motivate them for his political career..
for example.. Dr. Rajashekar Reddy.. Ex CM for Andhrapradesh was a doctor.!
thank you..I would like to know more about ths from different people!
you've mentally and emotionally made yourself attached and brainwashed wanting their presents and approval of you and your life in their life. rejection is a fickle condition of love and hate
Kim Reply
can I get note on exploratory behavior and curiousity
why is hard to move on in a relationship
chantel Reply
psychology study tips..as I find very difficult to understand the content
Faazi Reply
psychology study tips for ma entrance exam..I find very difficult to find the content
Why is it so hard to move on after a romantic relationship ends & one is left without any closure?
Dee Reply
It is due to one's reasoning and understanding
a sort of mental connection doesn't allow detachment for a period of time
what are the symptoms of severe depression
Ramesh Reply
suicidal ideations
sleep or insomnia, loss of interest in activities that you use to enjoy, feeling hopeless, doomed, suicidal thoughts...
1. Aside Insomia, hypersomia is also a symptom. There will be excessive sleeping almost everyday. 2. Significant weight loss or gain. 3. Impaired concentration, disorganized thoughts and indecisiveness.
loss of interests in daily activities
Fade up on things around
what is legal right
Ramesh Reply
Legal right are those right that are protected by the statutory law
what are the goal of Psychology
Ruth Reply
The four main goals of psychology are todescribe, explain, predict and control the behavior and mental processes of others
The goal of psychology is to predict, control and explain human behavior.
manic. If someone is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, but doesn't see it fit because they say they have never been manic, do you think they are right, or do you think they don't realize when they are manic?
kimberly Reply
Thank you for your input! I didn't know other personality disorders could cause mania, I look forward to continuing research
I think it's more they don't realise because they don't want to it themselves
Good question. Firstly, some personality disorders also exhibit mania. as a sufferer, you live for the mania, its like your sociable, energy of your 20s on a saturday night thing. plus the best mood ever. thing is youre at your most vulnerable whilst at your most risk taking state.it causes issues
mental health isnt optional. theres no off and on.
I not saying there a of on button, am saying sometime it's hard for someone to come to terms that they have , they dont want to believe it
for some a diagnosis is a relief, an explination, a "finally" its a huge moment as at times there is complete ignorance but a lot of questions
I personally myself was diagnosed with bipolar disorder at age 6 it was a misdiagnosis no one even accounted for the reasons why bipolar wasn't the right fit. I have been diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder.
same here. how did you feel about the rediagnosis? bpd?
I am the one who brought it up to the therapist and psychiatrist. I won't deny that I have I actually prefer this diagnosis than bipolar disorder
I don't get manic my adhd is what kicks in
thank you so much for sharing. im sure its psych porn. but how does acepting your diagnosis feel like to you. i feel mines not correct.
sadly there isnt much academia surrounding either mania, or personality diagnosed.
@Tu Verus. I feel that with the acceptance of this diagnosis and knowing that it is correct actually helps me. it helps me understand who I am why I am that way and what I can do to change. if you consistently feel like the diagnosis you have been given is wrong you become less confident.
I was manic out In the yard talking in tongues until I took lithium
concise. thank you. i hope it fidnt bring to much stress
lol, didnt.
Do people know when they are manic?
kimberly Reply
manic or panic?
example: feel confident to venture out. manic 1 - good mood 5 wake up in a strange place with either a lot or no money on you, empty bank account, 50 new numbers on your phone and feel great about it manic 5 good mood 5
i think its panic of people they know if they are confused
i believe that it really depends on how well a person knows themselves and whether or not they can identify their symptoms of their diagnosis. I personally panic due to a severe type of anxiety disorder. perception of one's self is important to distinguish otherwise it's speculation.
ive learnt signs or situations that the situation is changing. sadly i dont always catch it
yeah... I agree with you@ Sarah Earing, one has to understand him/herself well enough to know when he/she is panicking..... and one true tell tale sign to know when you are panicking is being nervous, your hands, voice and even the whole body begins to shake... depending on how panicked you feel
yes very true also when I panic not only do my hands voice and body shake I have a tendency to become very irritable and my confidence level declines and I usually feel dumb or stupid because I don't know how to respond and react in certain situations.
which part of brain is responsible for dreaming pls tell as soon as possible
pls tell
brain stem of cortex
hello! I'm looking for some online internships anyone can please suggest from where I can proceed?
Prachi Reply
Try UIBS, New Delhi They have one of the best faculty.
they have their offical website ?
Yes, they do
which sub field in psychology do you want to go to study for?
Jade Reply
Probably forensic psychology haha
foresic psychology
clinical psychology
behavioural psy
clinical psychology
clinical psychology
Forensics psychology
clinical psychology
forensic psychology or clinical psychology
i want clinical psych and councellor
Clinical Psychology
military psychology
how can I help you
which one is the best?
military psychology is the best
military psychology? is this a real thing?
yes it is
I like all of them
hello guys, can u explain what's military psychology.
how can a optimistic can define himself.
Tayyab Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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