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Structuralism, Freud, and the Gestalt psychologists were all concerned in one way or another with describing and understanding inner experience. But other researchers had concerns that inner experience could be a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and chose instead to exclusively study behavior, the objectively observable outcome of mental processes.

Pavlov, watson, skinner, and behaviorism

Early work in the field of behavior was conducted by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936). Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex, in which an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus. The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivation in response to the presence of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound, that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response to the second stimulus was “learned,” the food stimulus could be omitted. Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists.

John B. Watson (1878–1958) was an influential American psychologist whose most famous work occurred during the early 20th century at Johns Hopkins University ( [link] ). While Wundt and James were concerned with understanding conscious experience, Watson thought that the study of consciousness was flawed. Because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible, Watson preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control. Watson was a major proponent of shifting the focus of psychology from the mind to behavior, and this approach of observing and controlling behavior came to be known as behaviorism    . A major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism. Behaviorism commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior. Indeed, Tolman (1938) stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology (except … such matters as involve society and words) can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.”

A photograph shows John B. Watson.
John B. Watson is known as the father of behaviorism within psychology.

Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today (Thorne&Henley, 2005). Behaviorism is largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and especially experimentation. In addition, it is used in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavior modification is commonly used in classroom settings. Behaviorism has also led to research on environmental influences on human behavior.

Questions & Answers

when do children form oppions
Tasha Reply
they sit in home and play home toys
muhammad
How to know other person
RAGHAV Reply
what is the nature and scope of biopsychology?
Pratibha Reply
working along with neurologists and doctors closely on the field related to brain and nerves
devesh
How can one over come a sleep debt
Andy Reply
how does an algorithm save you time and energy when solving a problem
john Reply
by directing your attention or misdirecting your attention to a particular topic
frederick
can an obsession with blood and Gore be caused by psychological trauma
Dalton Reply
psychological trauma is a bit of a wild card in the case of long term effects. everyone has their own unique experience and I dont see why the example in your question couldn't be a possible manifestation.
Elle
it would be a bigger possibility of this resulting from trauma if this began after you witnessed a violent or gory event. however this often comes from the amount of violence and gore we are exposed to through social media, the news, and fictional material like books, movies and video games.
andrina
how can the bipolar and mood disorder can prevent?
Shana Reply
Control stress. Stress is a major bipolar trigger. ... If you would control stress you will simply feel good ....if you want to know more about this DM @shana mae
KhaLid
That brings us to the next question.. How do we actually control stress in an effective way?
Looney
well for me mindfulness meditation techniques are very much effective for coping with stress ....
KhaLid
please what are the major things I need to know now in psychology,because I'm a new student of psychology.
Godwin
Godwin if it is your begining in this field you should first clear some concepts like what is psychology it's etymology , structuralism,functionalism , behaviourism and many other perspectives .....
KhaLid
first of all are you studying in psychology or working as a psychologist
muhammad
studying Sir
Godwin
Thank you Sir Khalid.
Godwin
Muhammad Akram Both ☺️
KhaLid
Far too often, you can't control stress just like that on your own . And it will affect you On subconscious level . When it comes to meditation it's something to take seriously and best to be taught by professional.
Kira
I know there are many other ways but I found this one at my own Kira Emerala!
KhaLid
Hi friends
RAJABU
it can't be extracted I'll tell u that much
Shawnte
someone who study psychology here need help ? anyone ?
khawla
Can I ask for tips when you have no motivation and can't focus with your studies?
Jhea
For Shana, I'm sorry, I can't answer your concern at the moment, because I'm still studying about the basics of psychology 😬
Daydreaming
do meditation, start learning few pages initially n understand before moving to another topic
mini
play a sport of your choice for half an hour or listen to your fav music, develop your positive outlook towards life
mini
learn to balance work play study
mini
n health
mini
I'm struggling with BPD cptsd major anxiety disorders and going to college for a psychology degree. trying to maintain motivation is difficult. what can I do?
Sarah
I already meditate take my meds use biofeedback and several other things
Sarah
As a student, it is normal to lose motivation during college life but look at the long term goal. What do you want to achieve at the end? Divide it into small achieveable goals. Once you achieve it, focus on 2nd small goal. Last thing, it's okay to ask for help when needed. We are all in a journey.
mehdi
what's your friend's circle
muhammad
khawla saadouni yes how can I help you ?
KhaLid
Sarah you need CBT it will be effective on that what you are experiencing !!
KhaLid
implicit memory are those type of memories which can be written without any unconsciousness
Aayu Reply
m interested in this research...
Arnav
me too plz I am suffering from depression so v forgetful which has ruined my life
Sins
yes plank youth
Shawnte
0rayers poracles a d majik
Shawnte
cuffed truthfullcreatibeclarity
Shawnte
sins saintly do you need any help regarding how to cope up ?
KhaLid
nebieiluvrue
Shawnte
yes
Shawnte
what do you mean by sensory memory
Aayu Reply
sensory memory simply is an automatic response, not under conscious control. It deals with the input from the senses. 
KhaLid
what is the name of a person who introduction the techniques of factors analysis in intelligence
JobJoy Reply
what is associated with the developmental
JobJoy
lifelong spiritual advice
Zach Reply
Can you define spiritual Zach?
Emely
Are teeth part of our minds?
Kamil
who introduced the technique of factor analysis in intelligence
JobJoy Reply
Spearman's (1904)
Stephen
apart from Spearmans 1904 who again
JobJoy
Howard Garner
Komal
what scattered and worn triage has created upon resisting the internal anabalistic instinct to kill and conquer
Shawnte Reply
can anyone please recommend me some good psychology books?
Fareha
Id love to help but i would need to know about you.
Shawnte
Hahahahaha
Zain
Hey, I'm a 2nd year college student doing majors in psychology, i really love to read about different psychological concepts that effect us today's world, it would be great if you could recommend any books, thanks.
Fareha
lol @zain its ok i hope i get some books recommend too now
Fareha
anything related to the today's worlds issues and its factors related to the psychological effects
Fareha
obviously psychological concepts that effect about us today related to that @mujtaba
KhaLid
fareha Fatima have you ever read any book related to emotional intelligence?
KhaLid
@Khalid yes i did a few you can recommend me any book anyways
Fareha
thank you @Mujtaba i just downloaded the pdf.
Fareha
interesting emotional intelligence?
Sheila
interpretation of dreams sigmund frued behaviourism by JB Watson the ego and the Id by Sigmund frued
KhaLid
emotional waring made me mick bravery to even introduce my superiority complex without hiding...
Shawnte
yes especially by Daniel Goleman@sheila Henderson
KhaLid
how do i determine if im schizo because the voices i somtimes hear/feel are real.. it dosnt help my borderline personality disorder
Edward
Edward those types of labels are just words trying to capture the equation of some phenomenal behavioristic traits some have been both cursed and blessed with.
Shawnte
@Fareha erich fromm is very interesting
Mal
@Fareha read about personality by Sigmund Frued, Albert Adler & Eric Fromm..... & read about School of thoughts of Psychology...
Zain
electric field lines never cross why?
Hejab
how much patients can one have with a special needs child?
Edward Reply
theories of intelligence
Shamsuddeen Reply
Is a person born with inteĺigence? is ìt he or she have it in there genetic?
Edward
The debate of nature-nurture has been going on since the beginning of times. Intelligence depends on both genetic and environmental factors. But researchers incline towards genetics.
Shubhra
Define empathy in one word ?
KhaLid
it obviously goes hand and hand
Shawnte
considerate.
Angel
empathy means the feeling in which you put yourself into someone else's shoes to feel their pain
Fareha
definante God complexes would be my defined pretension absolving empathy
Shawnte
some belief "complexified" morbidity surrendered his normality enough to shadow
Shawnte
Fareha Fatima cxe ma chekh kasheer manz rozaan?
KhaLid
Khalid sobah cxe kati roozan
Mujtaba
intelligence is governed by both nature and nurture .Nature includes your surroundings and nurture includes genetic factors. Its the balance between the two that governs intelligence. These are not mutually exclusive.
heeba
so it is by being born with he or she has
Edward
Khalid i dont understand pashto or kashmiri language if thats what you wrote kindly translate it?
Fareha
well I said aren't you from Kashmir Fareha ?
KhaLid
Baramulla @Mujtaba bro
KhaLid
Adxa bhai... Cxe mah psychology subject panas
Mujtaba
preparing for pg bro
KhaLid
Best of luck teli.... Beyti kashmir University.
Mujtaba
preparing for pg bro
KhaLid
Fareha I mean aren't you also from Kashmir ?
KhaLid

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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