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Photograph A shows Sigmund Freud. Image B shows the title page of his book, A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis.
(a) Sigmund Freud was a highly influential figure in the history of psychology. (b) One of his many books, A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis , shared his ideas about psychoanalytical therapy; it was published in 1922.

Freud’s ideas were influential, and you will learn more about them when you study lifespan development, personality, and therapy. For instance, many therapists believe strongly in the unconscious and the impact of early childhood experiences on the rest of a person’s life. The method of psychoanalysis, which involves the patient talking about their experiences and selves, while not invented by Freud, was certainly popularized by him and is still used today. Many of Freud’s other ideas, however, are controversial. Drew Westen (1998) argues that many of the criticisms of Freud’s ideas are misplaced, in that they attack his older ideas without taking into account later writings. Westen also argues that critics fail to consider the success of the broad ideas that Freud introduced or developed, such as the importance of childhood experiences in adult motivations, the role of unconscious versus conscious motivations in driving our behavior, the fact that motivations can cause conflicts that affect behavior, the effects of mental representations of ourselves and others in guiding our interactions, and the development of personality over time. Westen identifies subsequent research support for all of these ideas.

More modern iterations of Freud’s clinical approach have been empirically demonstrated to be effective (Knekt et al., 2008; Shedler, 2010). Some current practices in psychotherapy involve examining unconscious aspects of the self and relationships, often through the relationship between the therapist and the client. Freud’s historical significance and contributions to clinical practice merit his inclusion in a discussion of the historical movements within psychology.

Wertheimer, koffka, köhler, and gestalt psychology

Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), and Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967) were three German psychologists who immigrated to the United States in the early 20th century to escape Nazi Germany. These men are credited with introducing psychologists in the United States to various Gestalt principles. The word Gestalt roughly translates to “whole;” a major emphasis of Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception. For example, a song may be made up of individual notes played by different instruments, but the real nature of the song is perceived in the combinations of these notes as they form the melody, rhythm, and harmony. In many ways, this particular perspective would have directly contradicted Wundt’s ideas of structuralism (Thorne&Henley, 2005).

Unfortunately, in moving to the United States, these men were forced to abandon much of their work and were unable to continue to conduct research on a large scale. These factors along with the rise of behaviorism (described next) in the United States prevented principles of Gestalt psychology from being as influential in the United States as they had been in their native Germany (Thorne&Henley, 2005). Despite these issues, several Gestalt principles are still very influential today. Considering the human individual as a whole rather than as a sum of individually measured parts became an important foundation in humanistic theory late in the century. The ideas of Gestalt have continued to influence research on sensation and perception.

Questions & Answers

what you guys up to
Kari Reply
nothing much, what are you doing?
Gregory
hi I'm just chilling
hart
About to teach psych class.
Meredith
Good luck on that Meredith Brown #Teachersrule
Tahmetrea
it's nice to see psych teachers around here. GD Lck with that.
Nikhil
who is Greek mythology
dusane Reply
What*
Dante
what is what?
danur
"what is Greek mythology" that's the proper question
Kyla
it is about creation of the world,god and myths
danur
what is pdychology
Thazuala Reply
what is psychology
Thazuala
a study of mind and behavior
Raman
explanation of soul with the help of instruments like cognition, behavioural and experience.
Prashant
methods of job analysis
vishal Reply
what is job analysis
vishal
selection of suitable ones' regarding with your work need.
Prashant
hey
Kari
hey Kari
Martin
hello
Remy
hello
Kari
place the process of creating a long-lasting memory in the typical order of occurrence
Sounny Reply
why is it that when you put all formalities in order your ability to complete a task is questioned and your self issues occur?
Carlnisha
yeah. after a research question is attained, you make a tentative statement that will either confirm your theory or not
Wayne Reply
is hypothesis first drawn before theory
Nwankwo Reply
a tentative statement that precedes the theory ascertained, so yeah
Wayne
The hypothesis is the theory. Experimentation then follows, to either confirm or deny said hypothesis/theory. Thry/Hyp-Exp-->Thry/Hyp-Exp. Process is subsequently repeated with the objective of, not so much proving the theory right, but to eliminate plausibility of said theory & prediction ability.
Ralph
Theory is basically a set of hypotheses not yet disproved, or maximally refined/perfected (if possible. Lol).
Ralph
so hypotheses comes before theory
Wendy
How does cognition and memory links with perception?
Catalina Reply
let's talk Sigmund Freud psychosexual theory and psychoanalytic theory.
Catalina
sure but I dont kn now him actually so explain him
Ruth
can I ask u all a question?
Ruth Reply
no
Ximax
come on it's about profiling
Ruth
yeah
Sz
how do u know that someone is in trouble but pretend that they aren't
Ruth
you need to looks for clues. otherwise there is no ready-made answer to your question.
Paul
what if they were acting weird and want to talk but can't
Ruth
also clues like what
Ruth
how to ready human mind
Sujeet Reply
how to read human behaviour
Sujeet
Describe frontal lobe syndrome
Bridget Reply
Frontal lobe syndrome is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma. 
Zafar
humanistic approach?
Inam
"The cerebellum controls the body functions."/with/"Don't believe everything you see on TV. Hollywood isn't reality." *Not a description but an example
Alex
what does the bell curve represent in intelligence testing?
Sounny Reply
average
Angela
I'M A VERY CURIOUS PERSON WHO LOVES TO LEARN ABOUT DIFFERENT TYPES
Sheri Reply
I AM A PERSON WHO IS NOT CHOOSING TO LET MY MENTAL HEALTH AFFECT ME AND I AM AN
Sheri
different types means.?😂😂
rilek
Indeed....different types means what exactly and how does these different types transpire into our lives? there are many different ways of allowing ourselves to accommodate and continiously play out the fact we have mental illnesses!!!
Elizabeth
social learning theory
CONFERENCE Reply
how we know the people are telling lie
Vasu
human brain
SERAJ
if you want to learn how to detect the lie you have to observe their behaviour...
Aayan
that's common things..
MOHD
anything specially, tht we can say either person is telling yes or no..?
MOHD
Yes
rochell
I believe there are many factors that play into being a human lie detector.
Tasha
all of which is governed by the human brain.
Tasha
There's no accurate method of telling someone is lying unless we know the truth ourselves. Some people, especially people with manipulative tendencies, will make a lie as believable as possible. Behaviors could tell the person is hiding something or may be feeling uncomfortable while being observed.
agii
Ex. Talking too fast while explaining a story might indicate that the person is indeed hiding something. Other than that, people, usually with histrionic personality disorder, also tend to exaggerate stories.
agii
DORFRLYN It's not easier to feel lied at first moment of talking to someone you know or you don't know. The person will be guilty of what they tell in the first sentence.They first find a way to hide the the truth. By so doing, the movement, and the head knock, this symbloyz the shift of origin
dorfrlyn
for one to tell lies, should first read the mind of the listener.
dorfrlyn
I agree with you Agil.Usually a person talks too fast,is hiding something true. But also talking too slow will mean creation of new story rather than the truth.
dorfrlyn
some people have the habit of speaking too fast, so in that case how can we identify whether the person is lying or not?
Labdhee
pay attention on facial expressions
El
When people talk too fast to the point that it's incomprehensible, it could mean that that person is trying to have you move one from one topic to another to prevent you from asking questions.
agii
observe micro expressions
Zafar
thanks to all for giving ans😃
Vasu
I want to learn more about psychodynamic personality theory
MsPam
MsPam Ware send me you email ... I just did a paper on Psychodynamic ...I can email it to you .. you may find it useful
Shanelle
Just wrapped a blackboard discussion on that! Theory is a great class. :)
Rachael
what if somebody answers questions quickly because they have social anxiety
Ashley
detecting lies is easier than many think. the dynamics of listening, body language, facial expression, story line, deductive reasoning and most of all analytical skills all play a role in determining if someone is lying. micro expressions can be very hard to discern requiring close analysis!
Kyth
Any recommendations for apps related to positive psychology?
Andrew Reply
intresting I mean
Asfand
Sometimes if you type "positive psychology " in your play store, you'll get some good ones
Tahmetrea
I use Awakenings by Iyanla Vanzant... She have a positive outlook on life. She's awesome!
Tahmetrea
Thank you, I will check that out.
Andrew
CBT types?
Rachael
psychology FACTS
katy
ITS SUPER EASY TO USE ... and divides the kind of positive psychology your looking for into groups! check it out.
katy
mental association books?
Maya
CBT works, and I am also looking for a psych book to read... I like psychology facts
Andrew
anyone know about any bipolar advocate groups or support type groups where a person can talk n vent while remaining anonymous?
tonya
HI I'M SHERI AND IN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE BIPOLAR SUPPORT GROUPS I LIVE IN SACRAMENTO CALIFORNIA AND I DO KNOW THAT THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT GROUPS 1) WELLNESS RECOVERY PROGRAMS AND I KNOW OF 2 LOCATIONS ONE ON MARCONI IN NORTH SACRAMENTO AND ON BOWLING OFF FLORIN IN SOUTH SACRAMENTO
Sheri

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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