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Section exercises

Verbal

For the following exercises, assume that there are n ways an event A can happen, m ways an event B can happen, and that A  and  B are non-overlapping.

Use the Addition Principle of counting to explain how many ways event A  or  B can occur.

There are m + n ways for either event A or event B to occur.

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Use the Multiplication Principle of counting to explain how many ways event A  and  B can occur.

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Answer the following questions.

When given two separate events, how do we know whether to apply the Addition Principle or the Multiplication Principle when calculating possible outcomes? What conjunctions may help to determine which operations to use?

The addition principle is applied when determining the total possible of outcomes of either event occurring. The multiplication principle is applied when determining the total possible outcomes of both events occurring. The word “or” usually implies an addition problem. The word “and” usually implies a multiplication problem.

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Describe how the permutation of n objects differs from the permutation of choosing r objects from a set of n objects. Include how each is calculated.

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What is the term for the arrangement that selects r objects from a set of n objects when the order of the r objects is not important? What is the formula for calculating the number of possible outcomes for this type of arrangement?

A combination; C ( n , r ) = n ! ( n r ) ! r !

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Numeric

For the following exercises, determine whether to use the Addition Principle or the Multiplication Principle. Then perform the calculations.

Let the set A = { 5 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 } . How many ways are there to choose a negative or an even number from A?

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Let the set B = { 23 , 16 , 7 , 2 , 20 , 36 , 48 , 72 } . How many ways are there to choose a positive or an odd number from A ?

4 + 2 = 6

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How many ways are there to pick a red ace or a club from a standard card playing deck?

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How many ways are there to pick a paint color from 5 shades of green, 4 shades of blue, or 7 shades of yellow?

5 + 4 + 7 = 16

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How many outcomes are possible from tossing a pair of coins?

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How many outcomes are possible from tossing a coin and rolling a 6-sided die?

2 × 6 = 12

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How many two-letter strings—the first letter from A and the second letter from B can be formed from the sets A = { b , c , d } and B = { a , e , i , o , u } ?

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How many ways are there to construct a string of 3 digits if numbers can be repeated?

10 3 = 1000

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How many ways are there to construct a string of 3 digits if numbers cannot be repeated?

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For the following exercises, compute the value of the expression.

P ( 5 , 2 )

P ( 5 , 2 ) = 20

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P ( 3 , 3 )

P ( 3 , 3 ) = 6

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P ( 11 , 5 )

P ( 11 , 5 ) = 55 , 440

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C ( 12 , 4 )

C ( 12 , 4 ) = 495

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C ( 7 , 6 )

C ( 7 , 6 ) = 7

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For the following exercises, find the number of subsets in each given set.

{ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 }

2 10 = 1024

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{ a , b , c , , z }

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A set containing 5 distinct numbers, 4 distinct letters, and 3 distinct symbols

2 12 = 4096

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The set of even numbers from 2 to 28

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The set of two-digit numbers between 1 and 100 containing the digit 0

2 9 = 512

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For the following exercises, find the distinct number of arrangements.

Questions & Answers

what are odd numbers
micheal Reply
numbers that leave a remainder when divided by 2
Thorben
1,3,5,7,... 99,...867
Thorben
7%2=1, 679%2=1, 866245%2=1
Thorben
the third and the seventh terms of a G.P are 81 and 16, find the first and fifth terms.
Suleiman Reply
if a=3, b =4 and c=5 find the six trigonometric value sin
Martin Reply
pls how do I factorize x⁴+x³-7x²-x+6=0
Gift Reply
in a function the input value is called
Rimsha Reply
how do I test for values on the number line
Modesta Reply
if a=4 b=4 then a+b=
Rimsha Reply
a+b+2ab
Kin
commulative principle
DIOSDADO
a+b= 4+4=8
Mimi
If a=4 and b=4 then we add the value of a and b i.e a+b=4+4=8.
Tariq
what are examples of natural number
sani Reply
an equation for the line that goes through the point (-1,12) and has a slope of 2,3
Katheryn Reply
3y=-9x+25
Ishaq
show that the set of natural numberdoes not from agroup with addition or multiplication butit forms aseni group with respect toaaddition as well as multiplication
Komal Reply
x^20+x^15+x^10+x^5/x^2+1
Urmila Reply
evaluate each algebraic expression. 2x+×_2 if ×=5
Sarch Reply
if the ratio of the root of ax+bx+c =0, show that (m+1)^2 ac =b^2m
Awe Reply
By the definition, is such that 0!=1.why?
Unikpel Reply
(1+cosA+IsinA)(1+cosB+isinB)/(cos@+isin@)(cos$+isin$)
Ajay Reply
hatdog
Mark
jaks
Ryan
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, Algebra and trigonometry. OpenStax CNX. Nov 14, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11758/1.6
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