# 1.1 Functions and function notation  (Page 7/21)

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Using [link] , solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=1.$

$x=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$

## Determining whether a function is one-to-one

Some functions have a given output value that corresponds to two or more input values. For example, in the stock chart shown in [link] at the beginning of this chapter, the stock price was $1000 on five different dates, meaning that there were five different input values that all resulted in the same output value of$1000.

However, some functions have only one input value for each output value, as well as having only one output for each input. We call these functions one-to-one functions. As an example, consider a school that uses only letter grades and decimal equivalents, as listed in [link] .

A 4.0
B 3.0
C 2.0
D 1.0

This grading system represents a one-to-one function, because each letter input yields one particular grade point average output and each grade point average corresponds to one input letter.

To visualize this concept, let’s look again at the two simple functions sketched in [link] (a) and [link] (b) . The function in part (a) shows a relationship that is not a one-to-one function because inputs $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}q\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ both give output $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ The function in part (b) shows a relationship that is a one-to-one function because each input is associated with a single output.

## One-to-one function

A one-to-one function    is a function in which each output value corresponds to exactly one input value.

## Determining whether a relationship is a one-to-one function

Is the area of a circle a function of its radius? If yes, is the function one-to-one?

A circle of radius $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ has a unique area measure given by $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A=\pi {r}^{2},$ so for any input, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ there is only one output, $A.$ The area is a function of radius $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r.$

If the function is one-to-one, the output value, the area, must correspond to a unique input value, the radius. Any area measure $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is given by the formula $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A=\pi {r}^{2}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Because areas and radii are positive numbers, there is exactly one solution: $\sqrt{\frac{A}{\pi }}.$ So the area of a circle is a one-to-one function of the circle’s radius.

1. Is a balance a function of the bank account number?
2. Is a bank account number a function of the balance?
3. Is a balance a one-to-one function of the bank account number?

a. yes, because each bank account has a single balance at any given time; b. no, because several bank account numbers may have the same balance; c. no, because the same output may correspond to more than one input.

Evaluate the following:

1. If each percent grade earned in a course translates to one letter grade, is the letter grade a function of the percent grade?
2. If so, is the function one-to-one?
2. No, it is not one-to-one. There are 100 different percent numbers we could get but only about five possible letter grades, so there cannot be only one percent number that corresponds to each letter grade.

## Using the vertical line test

As we have seen in some examples above, we can represent a function using a graph. Graphs display a great many input-output pairs in a small space. The visual information they provide often makes relationships easier to understand. By convention, graphs are typically constructed with the input values along the horizontal axis and the output values along the vertical axis.

can I get some pretty basic questions
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
x is different from -5&3
Seid
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
what is this?
i do not understand anything
unknown
lol...it gets better
Darius
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
Tiffany
how to solve polynomial using a calculator