# 6.7 Exponential and logarithmic models  (Page 5/16)

 Page 5 / 16

A pitcher of water at 40 degrees Fahrenheit is placed into a 70 degree room. One hour later, the temperature has risen to 45 degrees. How long will it take for the temperature to rise to 60 degrees?

6.026 hours

## Using logistic growth models

Exponential growth cannot continue forever. Exponential models, while they may be useful in the short term, tend to fall apart the longer they continue. Consider an aspiring writer who writes a single line on day one and plans to double the number of lines she writes each day for a month. By the end of the month, she must write over 17 billion lines, or one-half-billion pages. It is impractical, if not impossible, for anyone to write that much in such a short period of time. Eventually, an exponential model must begin to approach some limiting value, and then the growth is forced to slow. For this reason, it is often better to use a model with an upper bound instead of an exponential growth    model, though the exponential growth model is still useful over a short term, before approaching the limiting value.

The logistic growth model    is approximately exponential at first, but it has a reduced rate of growth as the output approaches the model’s upper bound, called the carrying capacity    . For constants $\text{a, b,}$ and $\text{c,}$ the logistic growth of a population over time $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is represented by the model

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{c}{1+a{e}^{-bx}}$

The graph in [link] shows how the growth rate changes over time. The graph increases from left to right, but the growth rate only increases until it reaches its point of maximum growth rate, at which point the rate of increase decreases.

## Logistic growth

The logistic growth model is

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{c}{1+a{e}^{-bx}}$

where

• $\frac{c}{1+a}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the initial value
• $c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the carrying capacity , or limiting value
• $b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is a constant determined by the rate of growth.

## Using the logistic-growth model

An influenza epidemic spreads through a population rapidly, at a rate that depends on two factors: The more people who have the flu, the more rapidly it spreads, and also the more uninfected people there are, the more rapidly it spreads. These two factors make the logistic model a good one to study the spread of communicable diseases. And, clearly, there is a maximum value for the number of people infected: the entire population.

For example, at time $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ there is one person in a community of 1,000 people who has the flu. So, in that community, at most 1,000 people can have the flu. Researchers find that for this particular strain of the flu, the logistic growth constant is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b=0.6030.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Estimate the number of people in this community who will have had this flu after ten days. Predict how many people in this community will have had this flu after a long period of time has passed.

We substitute the given data into the logistic growth model

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{c}{1+a{e}^{-bx}}$

Because at most 1,000 people, the entire population of the community, can get the flu, we know the limiting value is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c=1000.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To find $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a,$ we use the formula that the number of cases at time $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{c}{1+a}=1,$ from which it follows that $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a=999.\text{}$ This model predicts that, after ten days, the number of people who have had the flu is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1000}{1+999{e}^{-0.6030x}}\approx 293.8.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Because the actual number must be a whole number (a person has either had the flu or not) we round to 294. In the long term, the number of people who will contract the flu is the limiting value, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c=1000.$

#### Questions & Answers

what are you up to?
nothing up todat yet
Miranda
hi
jai
hello
jai
Miranda Drice
jai
aap konsi country se ho
jai
which language is that
Miranda
I am living in india
jai
good
Miranda
what is the formula for calculating algebraic
I think the formula for calculating algebraic is the statement of the equality of two expression stimulate by a set of addition, multiplication, soustraction, division, raising to a power and extraction of Root. U believe by having those in the equation you will be in measure to calculate it
Miranda
state and prove Cayley hamilton therom
hello
Propessor
hi
Miranda
the Cayley hamilton Theorem state if A is a square matrix and if f(x) is its characterics polynomial then f(x)=0 in another ways evey square matrix is a root of its chatacteristics polynomial.
Miranda
hi
jai
hi Miranda
jai
thanks
Propessor
welcome
jai
What is algebra
algebra is a branch of the mathematics to calculate expressions follow.
Miranda
Miranda Drice would you mind teaching me mathematics? I think you are really good at math. I'm not good at it. In fact I hate it. 😅😅😅
Jeffrey
lolll who told you I'm good at it
Miranda
something seems to wispher me to my ear that u are good at it. lol
Jeffrey
lolllll if you say so
Miranda
but seriously, Im really bad at math. And I hate it. But you see, I downloaded this app two months ago hoping to master it.
Jeffrey
which grade are you in though
Miranda
oh woww I understand
Miranda
haha. already finished college
Jeffrey
how about you? what grade are you now?
Jeffrey
I'm going to 11grade
Miranda
how come you finished in college and you don't like math though
Miranda
gotta practice, holmie
Steve
if you never use it you won't be able to appreciate it
Steve
I don't know why. But Im trying to like it.
Jeffrey
yes steve. you're right
Jeffrey
so you better
Miranda
what is the solution of the given equation?
which equation
Miranda
I dont know. lol
Jeffrey
please where is the equation
Miranda
Jeffrey
answer and questions in exercise 11.2 sums
how do u calculate inequality of irrational number?
Alaba
give me an example
Chris
and I will walk you through it
Chris
cos (-z)= cos z .
cos(- z)=cos z
Mustafa
what is a algebra
(x+x)3=?
6x
Obed
what is the identity of 1-cos²5x equal to?
__john __05
Kishu
Hi
Abdel
hi
Ye
hi
Nokwanda
C'est comment
Abdel
Hi
Amanda
hello
SORIE
Hiiii
Chinni
hello
Ranjay
hi
ANSHU
hiiii
Chinni
h r u friends
Chinni
yes
Hassan
so is their any Genius in mathematics here let chat guys and get to know each other's
SORIE
I speak French
Abdel
okay no problem since we gather here and get to know each other
SORIE
hi im stupid at math and just wanna join here
Yaona
lol nahhh none of us here are stupid it's just that we have Fast, Medium, and slow learner bro but we all going to work things out together
SORIE
it's 12
what is the function of sine with respect of cosine , graphically
tangent bruh
Steve
cosx.cos2x.cos4x.cos8x
sinx sin2x is linearly dependent
what is a reciprocal
The reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by a number. eg the reciprocal of 10 is 1/10 which is 0.1
Shemmy
Reciprocal is a pair of numbers that, when multiplied together, equal to 1. Example; the reciprocal of 3 is ⅓, because 3 multiplied by ⅓ is equal to 1
Jeza
each term in a sequence below is five times the previous term what is the eighth term in the sequence
I don't understand how radicals works pls
How look for the general solution of a trig function