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Section exercises

Verbal

What is an n th partial sum?

An n th partial sum is the sum of the first n terms of a sequence.

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What is the difference between an arithmetic sequence and an arithmetic series?

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What is a geometric series?

A geometric series is the sum of the terms in a geometric sequence.

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How is finding the sum of an infinite geometric series different from finding the n th partial sum?

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What is an annuity?

An annuity is a series of regular equal payments that earn a constant compounded interest.

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Algebraic

For the following exercises, express each description of a sum using summation notation.

The sum of terms m 2 + 3 m from m = 1 to m = 5

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The sum from of n = 0 to n = 4 of 5 n

n = 0 4 5 n

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The sum of 6 k 5 from k = 2 to k = 1

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The sum that results from adding the number 4 five times

k = 1 5 4

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For the following exercises, express each arithmetic sum using summation notation.

5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 30 + 35 + 40 + 45 + 50

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10 + 18 + 26 + + 162

k = 1 20 8 k + 2

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1 2 + 1 + 3 2 + 2 + + 4

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For the following exercises, use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of each arithmetic sequence.

3 2 + 2 + 5 2 + 3 + 7 2

S 5 = 5 ( 3 2 + 7 2 ) 2

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3.2 + 3.4 + 3.6 + + 5.6

S 13 = 13 ( 3.2 + 5.6 ) 2

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For the following exercises, express each geometric sum using summation notation.

1 + 3 + 9 + 27 + 81 + 243 + 729 + 2187

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8 + 4 + 2 + + 0.125

k = 1 7 8 0.5 k 1

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1 6 + 1 12 1 24 + + 1 768

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For the following exercises, use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of each geometric sequence, and then state the indicated sum.

9 + 3 + 1 + 1 3 + 1 9

S 5 = 9 ( 1 ( 1 3 ) 5 ) 1 1 3 = 121 9 13.44

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n = 1 9 5 2 n 1

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a = 1 11 64 0.2 a 1

S 11 = 64 ( 1 0.2 11 ) 1 0.2 = 781 , 249 , 984 9 , 765 , 625 80

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For the following exercises, determine whether the infinite series has a sum. If so, write the formula for the sum. If not, state the reason.

2 + 1.6 + 1.28 + 1.024 + ...

The series is defined. S = 2 1 0.8

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k = 1 ( 1 2 ) k 1

The series is defined. S = 1 1 ( 1 2 )

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Graphical

For the following exercises, use the following scenario. Javier makes monthly deposits into a savings account. He opened the account with an initial deposit of $50. Each month thereafter he increased the previous deposit amount by $20.

Graph the arithmetic sequence showing one year of Javier’s deposits.

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Graph the arithmetic series showing the monthly sums of one year of Javier’s deposits.

Graph of Javier's deposits where the x-axis is the months of the year and the y-axis is the sum of deposits.
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For the following exercises, use the geometric series k = 1 ( 1 2 ) k .

Graph the first 7 partial sums of the series.

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What number does S n seem to be approaching in the graph? Find the sum to explain why this makes sense.

Sample answer: The graph of S n seems to be approaching 1. This makes sense because k = 1 ( 1 2 ) k is a defined infinite geometric series with S = 1 2 1 ( 1 2 ) = 1.

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Numeric

For the following exercises, find the indicated sum.

n = 1 6 n ( n 2 )

49

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For the following exercises, use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic series to find the sum.

1.7 + 0.4 + 0.9 + 2.2 + 3.5 + 4.8

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6 + 15 2 + 9 + 21 2 + 12 + 27 2 + 15

S 7 = 147 2

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1 + 3 + 7 + ... + 31

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k = 1 11 ( k 2 1 2 )

S 11 = 55 2

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For the following exercises, use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series to find the partial sum.

S 6 for the series 2 10 50 250...

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S 7 for the series 0.4 2 + 10 50...

S 7 = 5208.4

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n = 1 10 2 ( 1 2 ) n 1

S 10 = 1023 256

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For the following exercises, find the sum of the infinite geometric series.

1 1 4 1 16 1 64 ...

S = 4 3

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k = 1 3 ( 1 4 ) k 1

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n = 1 4.6 0.5 n 1

S = 9.2

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For the following exercises, determine the value of the annuity for the indicated monthly deposit amount, the number of deposits, and the interest rate.

Deposit amount: $ 50 ; total deposits: 60 ; interest rate: 5 % , compounded monthly

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Deposit amount: $ 150 ; total deposits: 24 ; interest rate: 3 % , compounded monthly

$3,705.42

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Deposit amount: $ 450 ; total deposits: 60 ; interest rate: 4.5 % , compounded quarterly

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Deposit amount: $ 100 ; total deposits: 120 ; interest rate: 10 % , compounded semi-annually

$695,823.97

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Extensions

The sum of terms 50 k 2 from k = x through 7 is 115. What is x ?

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Write an explicit formula for a k such that k = 0 6 a k = 189. Assume this is an arithmetic series.

a k = 30 k

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Find the smallest value of n such that k = 1 n ( 3 k 5 ) > 100.

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How many terms must be added before the series 1 3 5 7 ....   has a sum less than 75 ?

9 terms

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Write 0. 65 ¯ as an infinite geometric series using summation notation. Then use the formula for finding the sum of an infinite geometric series to convert 0. 65 ¯ to a fraction.

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The sum of an infinite geometric series is five times the value of the first term. What is the common ratio of the series?

r = 4 5

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To get the best loan rates available, the Riches want to save enough money to place 20% down on a $160,000 home. They plan to make monthly deposits of $125 in an investment account that offers 8.5% annual interest compounded semi-annually. Will the Riches have enough for a 20% down payment after five years of saving? How much money will they have saved?

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Karl has two years to save $ 10 , 000 to buy a used car when he graduates. To the nearest dollar, what would his monthly deposits need to be if he invests in an account offering a 4.2% annual interest rate that compounds monthly?

$400 per month

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Real-world applications

Keisha devised a week-long study plan to prepare for finals. On the first day, she plans to study for 1 hour, and each successive day she will increase her study time by 30 minutes. How many hours will Keisha have studied after one week?

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A boulder rolled down a mountain, traveling 6 feet in the first second. Each successive second, its distance increased by 8 feet. How far did the boulder travel after 10 seconds?

420 feet

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A scientist places 50 cells in a petri dish. Every hour, the population increases by 1.5%. What will the cell count be after 1 day?

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A pendulum travels a distance of 3 feet on its first swing. On each successive swing, it travels 3 4 the distance of the previous swing. What is the total distance traveled by the pendulum when it stops swinging?

12 feet

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Rachael deposits $1,500 into a retirement fund each year. The fund earns 8.2% annual interest, compounded monthly. If she opened her account when she was 19 years old, how much will she have by the time she is 55? How much of that amount will be interest earned?

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Questions & Answers

The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26
Rima Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Brittany Reply
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Imani Reply
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
Jhon Reply
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
Baptiste Reply
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Esther Reply
divide simplify each answer 3/2÷5/4
Momo Reply
divide simplify each answer 25/3÷5/12
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
austin Reply
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
Diddy Reply
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
Zairen Reply
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
Peighton Reply
how to understand calculus?
Jenica Reply
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
rachel Reply
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
Reena Reply
what is foci?
Reena Reply
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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