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Key equations
probability of an event with equally likely outcomes
$$P(E)=\frac{n(E)}{n(S)}$$
probability of the union of two events
$$P(E\cup F)=P(E)+P(F)-P(E\cap F)$$
probability of the union of mutually exclusive events
$$P(E\cup F)=P(E)+P(F)$$
probability of the complement of an event
$$P(E\text{'})=1-P(E)$$
Key concepts
Probability is always a number between 0 and 1, where 0 means an event is impossible and 1 means an event is certain.
The probabilities in a probability model must sum to 1. See
[link] .
When the outcomes of an experiment are all equally likely, we can find the probability of an event by dividing the number of outcomes in the event by the total number of outcomes in the sample space for the experiment. See
[link] .
To find the probability of the union of two events, we add the probabilities of the two events and subtract the probability that both events occur simultaneously. See
[link] .
To find the probability of the union of two mutually exclusive events, we add the probabilities of each of the events. See
[link] .
The probability of the complement of an event is the difference between 1 and the probability that the event occurs. See
[link] .
In some probability problems, we need to use permutations and combinations to find the number of elements in events and sample spaces. See
[link] .
Section exercises
Verbal
What term is used to express the likelihood of an event occurring? Are there restrictions on its values? If so, what are they? If not, explain.
probability; The probability of an event is restricted to values between
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ inclusive of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$
The
union of two sets is defined as a set of elements that are present in at least one of the sets. How is this similar to the definition used for the
union of two events from a probability model? How is it different?
The probability of the
union of two events occurring is a number that describes the likelihood that at least one of the events from a probability model occurs. In both a union of sets
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{}\text{and}B\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and a union of events
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{and}B,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the union includes either
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{or}B\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or both. The difference is that a union of sets results in another set, while the union of events is a probability, so it is always a numerical value between
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$
I've run into this:
x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2)
Which expands to:
x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2))
The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes:
(r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1))
How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
Brad
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis
vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As
'f(x)=y'.
According to Google,
"The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks.
"Â" or 'Â' ... Â
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Period =2π
if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts