Find and graph the equation for a function,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g(x),$ that reflects
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={1.25}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ about the
y -axis. State its domain, range, and asymptote.
The domain is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the range is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the horizontal asymptote is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0.$
Summarizing translations of the exponential function
Now that we have worked with each type of translation for the exponential function, we can summarize them in
[link] to arrive at the general equation for translating exponential functions.
Translations of the Parent Function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}$
Translation
Form
Shift
Horizontally
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units to the left
Vertically
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units up
$$f(x)={b}^{x+c}+d$$
Stretch and Compress
Stretch if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|a\right|>1$
Compression if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0<\left|a\right|<1$
$$f(x)=a{b}^{x}$$
Reflect about the
x -axis
$$f(x)=-{b}^{x}$$
Reflect about the
y -axis
$$f(x)={b}^{-x}={\left(\frac{1}{b}\right)}^{x}$$
General equation for all translations
$$f(x)=a{b}^{x+c}+d$$
Translations of exponential functions
A translation of an exponential function has the form
$f(x)=a{b}^{x+c}+d$
Where the parent function,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={b}^{x},$$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b>1,$ is
shifted horizontally
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units to the left.
stretched vertically by a factor of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|a\right|\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|a\right|>0.$
compressed vertically by a factor of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|a\right|\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0<\left|a\right|<1.$
reflected about the
x- axis when
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a<0.$
Note the order of the shifts, transformations, and reflections follow the order of operations.
Writing a function from a description
Write the equation for the function described below. Give the horizontal asymptote, the domain, and the range.
$f(x)={e}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is vertically stretched by a factor of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ , reflected across the
y -axis, and then shifted up
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}4\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units.
We want to find an equation of the general form
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)=a{b}^{x+c}+d.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ We use the description provided to find
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a,$$b,$$c,$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d.$
We are given the parent function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={e}^{x},$ so
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b=e.$
The function is stretched by a factor of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2$ , so
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a=2.$
The function is reflected about the
y -axis. We replace
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ with
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to get:
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{e}^{-x}.$
The graph is shifted vertically 4 units, so
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d=4.$
The domain is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the range is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(4,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the horizontal asymptote is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=4.$
Write the equation for function described below. Give the horizontal asymptote, the domain, and the range.
$f(x)={e}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is compressed vertically by a factor of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{1}{3},$ reflected across the
x -axis and then shifted down
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2$ units.
$f(x)=-\frac{1}{3}{e}^{x}-2;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the domain is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the range is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,2\right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the horizontal asymptote is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=2.$
General Form for the Translation of the Parent Function
$\text{}f(x)={b}^{x}$
$f(x)=a{b}^{x+c}+d$
Key concepts
The graph of the function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ has a
y- intercept at
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,1\right),$ domain
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right),$ range
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,\infty \right),$ and horizontal asymptote
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link] .
If
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b>1,$ the function is increasing. The left tail of the graph will approach the asymptote
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0,$ and the right tail will increase without bound.
If
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0<b<1,$ the function is decreasing. The left tail of the graph will increase without bound, and the right tail will approach the asymptote
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0.$
The equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}+d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ represents a vertical shift of the parent function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}.$
The equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x+c}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ represents a horizontal shift of the parent function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link] .
Approximate solutions of the equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x+c}+d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ can be found using a graphing calculator. See
[link] .
The equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)=a{b}^{x},$ where
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a>0,$ represents a vertical stretch if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|a\right|>1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or compression if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0<\left|a\right|<1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ of the parent function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link] .
When the parent function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is multiplied by
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-1,$ the result,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)=-{b}^{x},$ is a reflection about the
x -axis. When the input is multiplied by
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-1,$ the result,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={b}^{-x},$ is a reflection about the
y -axis. See
[link] .
All translations of the exponential function can be summarized by the general equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)=a{b}^{x+c}+d.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link] .
Using the general equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)=a{b}^{x+c}+d,$ we can write the equation of a function given its description. See
[link] .
Questions & Answers
I've run into this:
x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2)
Which expands to:
x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2))
The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes:
(r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1))
How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis
vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As
'f(x)=y'.
According to Google,
"The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks.
"Â" or 'Â' ... Â
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Period =2π
if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
For Plan A to reach $27/month to surpass Plan B's $26.50 monthly payment, you'll need 3,000 texts which will cost an additional $10.00. So, for the amount of texts you need to send would need to range between 1-100 texts for the 100th increment, times that by 3 for the additional amount of texts...
Gilbert
...for one text payment for 300 for Plan A. So, that means Plan A; in my opinion is for people with text messaging abilities that their fingers burn the monitor for the cell phone. While Plan B would be for loners that doesn't need their fingers to due the talking; but those texts mean more then...