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Describing periodic motion

The hour hand of the large clock on the wall in Union Station measures 24 inches in length. At noon, the tip of the hour hand is 30 inches from the ceiling. At 3 PM, the tip is 54 inches from the ceiling, and at 6 PM, 78 inches. At 9 PM, it is again 54 inches from the ceiling, and at midnight, the tip of the hour hand returns to its original position 30 inches from the ceiling. Let y equal the distance from the tip of the hour hand to the ceiling x hours after noon. Find the equation that models the motion of the clock and sketch the graph.

Begin by making a table of values as shown in [link] .

x y Points to plot
Noon 30 in ( 0 , 30 )
3 PM 54 in ( 3 , 54 )
6 PM 78 in ( 6 , 78 )
9 PM 54 in ( 9 , 54 )
Midnight 30 in ( 12 , 30 )

To model an equation, we first need to find the amplitude.

| A | = | 78 30 2 |      = 24

The clock’s cycle repeats every 12 hours. Thus,

B = 2 π 12     = π 6

The vertical shift is

D = 78 + 30 2     = 54

There is no horizontal shift, so C = 0. Since the function begins with the minimum value of y when x = 0 (as opposed to the maximum value), we will use the cosine function with the negative value for A . In the form y = A cos ( B x ± C ) + D , the equation is

y = −24 cos ( π 6 x ) + 54

See [link] .

Graph of the function y=-24cos(pi/6 x)+54 using the five key points: (0,30), (3,54), (6,78), (9,54), (12,30).
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Determining a model for tides

The height of the tide in a small beach town is measured along a seawall. Water levels oscillate between 7 feet at low tide and 15 feet at high tide. On a particular day, low tide occurred at 6 AM and high tide occurred at noon. Approximately every 12 hours, the cycle repeats. Find an equation to model the water levels.

As the water level varies from 7 ft to 15 ft, we can calculate the amplitude as

| A | = | ( 15 7 ) 2 |      = 4

The cycle repeats every 12 hours; therefore, B is

2 π 12 = π 6

There is a vertical translation of ( 15 + 8 ) 2 = 11.5. Since the value of the function is at a maximum at t = 0 , we will use the cosine function, with the positive value for A .

y = 4 cos ( π 6 ) t + 11

See [link] .

Graph of the function y=4cos(pi/6 t) + 11 from 0 to 12. The midline is y=11, three key points are (0,15), (6,7), and (12, 15).
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The daily temperature in the month of March in a certain city varies from a low of 24 °F to a high of 40 °F . Find a sinusoidal function to model daily temperature and sketch the graph. Approximate the time when the temperature reaches the freezing point 32 °F . Let t = 0 correspond to noon.

y = 8 sin ( π 12 t ) + 32
The temperature reaches freezing at noon and at midnight.

Graph of the function y=8sin(pi/12 t) + 32 for temperature. The midline is at 32. The times when the temperature is at 32 are midnight and noon.
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Interpreting the periodic behavior equation

The average person’s blood pressure is modeled by the function f ( t ) = 20 sin ( 160 π t ) + 100 , where f ( t ) represents the blood pressure at time t , measured in minutes. Interpret the function in terms of period and frequency. Sketch the graph and find the blood pressure reading.

The period is given by

2 π ω = 2 π 160 π       = 1 80

In a blood pressure function, frequency represents the number of heart beats per minute. Frequency is the reciprocal of period and is given by

ω 2 π = 160 π 2 π = 80

See the graph in [link] .

Graph of the function f(t) = 20sin(160 * pi * t) + 100 for blood pressure. The midline is at 100.
The blood pressure reading on the graph is 120 80   ( maximum minimum ) .
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Modeling harmonic motion functions

Harmonic motion is a form of periodic motion, but there are factors to consider that differentiate the two types. While general periodic motion applications cycle through their periods with no outside interference, harmonic motion requires a restoring force. Examples of harmonic motion include springs, gravitational force, and magnetic force.

Questions & Answers

x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
Ahlicia Reply
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
so good
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
It is the  that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Now it shows, go figure?
what is this?
unknown Reply
i do not understand anything
lol...it gets better
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
is there any question in particular?
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
how to solve polynomial using a calculator
Ef Reply
So a horizontal compression by factor of 1/2 is the same as a horizontal stretch by a factor of 2, right?
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26
Rima Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
I done know
What kind of answer is that😑?
I had just woken up when i got this message
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
i have a question.
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
I have a question
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Brittany Reply
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Imani Reply
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
if not then how would I find it from a graph
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
I will try that thank u
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
Jhon Reply
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
Baptiste Reply
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Esther Reply
divide simplify each answer 3/2÷5/4
Momo Reply
divide simplify each answer 25/3÷5/12
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
austin Reply
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Practice Key Terms 2

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