# 6.1 Graphs of the sine and cosine functions  (Page 8/13)

 Page 8 / 13

For the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{cos}\left(Bx+C\right)+D,$ what constants affect the range of the function and how do they affect the range?

The absolute value of the constant $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ (amplitude) increases the total range and the constant $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}D\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ (vertical shift) shifts the graph vertically.

How does the range of a translated sine function relate to the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\left(Bx+C\right)+D?$

How can the unit circle be used to construct the graph of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(t\right)=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t?$

At the point where the terminal side of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ intersects the unit circle, you can determine that the $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equals the y -coordinate of the point.

## Graphical

For the following exercises, graph two full periods of each function and state the amplitude, period, and midline. State the maximum and minimum y -values and their corresponding x -values on one period for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x>0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Round answers to two decimal places if necessary.

$f\left(x\right)=2\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{2}{3}\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x$

amplitude: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{2}{3};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\frac{2}{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-\frac{2}{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for one period, the graph starts at 0 and ends at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\pi$

$f\left(x\right)=-3\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x$

$f\left(x\right)=4\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x$

amplitude: 4; period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=4\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{\pi }{2};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-4\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{3\pi }{2};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ one full period occurs from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2\pi$

$f\left(x\right)=2\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x$

$f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{cos}\left(2x\right)$

amplitude: 1; period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{\pi }{2};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ one full period is graphed from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\pi$

$f\left(x\right)=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{1}{2}x\right)$

$f\left(x\right)=4\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{cos}\left(\pi x\right)$

amplitude: 4; period: 2; midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=4\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-4\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1$

$f\left(x\right)=3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{cos}\left(\frac{6}{5}x\right)$

$y=3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\left(8\left(x+4\right)\right)+5$

amplitude: 3; period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{\pi }{4};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=5;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=8\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.12;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.516;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ horizontal shift: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-4;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ vertical translation 5; one period occurs from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{\pi }{4}$

$y=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\left(3x-21\right)+4$

$y=5\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\left(5x+20\right)-2$

amplitude: 5; period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{2\pi }{5};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-2;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.08;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-7\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.71;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ phase shift: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-4;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ vertical translation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-2;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ one full period can be graphed on $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{2\pi }{5}$

For the following exercises, graph one full period of each function, starting at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ For each function, state the amplitude, period, and midline. State the maximum and minimum y -values and their corresponding x -values on one period for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x>0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ State the phase shift and vertical translation, if applicable. Round answers to two decimal places if necessary.

$f\left(t\right)=2\mathrm{sin}\left(t-\frac{5\pi }{6}\right)$

$f\left(t\right)=-\mathrm{cos}\left(t+\frac{\pi }{3}\right)+1$

amplitude: 1 ; period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=1;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2.09;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=2.09;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=5.24;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ phase shift: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\frac{\pi }{3};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ vertical translation: 1; one full period is from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=2\pi$

$f\left(t\right)=4\mathrm{cos}\left(2\left(t+\frac{\pi }{4}\right)\right)-3$

$f\left(t\right)=-\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{1}{2}t+\frac{5\pi }{3}\right)$

amplitude: 1; period: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}4\pi ;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ maximum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=11.52;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ minimum: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ occurs at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=5.24;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ phase shift: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\frac{10\pi }{3};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ vertical shift: 0

$f\left(x\right)=4\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{\pi }{2}\left(x-3\right)\right)+7$

Determine the amplitude, midline, period, and an equation involving the sine function for the graph shown in [link] .

amplitude: 2; midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-3;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ period: 4; equation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=2\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{\pi }{2}x\right)-3$

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving cosine for the graph shown in [link] .

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving cosine for the graph shown in [link] .

amplitude: 2; period: 5; midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=3;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=-2\mathrm{cos}\left(\frac{2\pi }{5}x\right)+3$

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving sine for the graph shown in [link] .

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving cosine for the graph shown in [link] .

amplitude: 4; period: 2; midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=-4\mathrm{cos}\left(\pi \left(x-\frac{\pi }{2}\right)\right)$

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving sine for the graph shown in [link] .

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving cosine for the graph shown in [link] .

amplitude: 2; period: 2; midline $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=1;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=2\mathrm{cos}\left(\pi x\right)+1$

Determine the amplitude, period, midline, and an equation involving sine for the graph shown in [link] .

## Algebraic

For the following exercises, let $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=0.$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{2}.$

$\frac{\pi }{6},\frac{5\pi }{6}$

Evaluate $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(\frac{\pi }{2}\right).$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),f\left(x\right)=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Find all values of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

$\frac{\pi }{4},\frac{3\pi }{4}$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ the maximum value(s) of the function occur(s) at what x -value(s)?

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ the minimum value(s) of the function occur(s) at what x -value(s)?

$\frac{3\pi }{2}$

Show that $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(-x\right)=-f\left(x\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ This means that $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is an odd function and possesses symmetry with respect to ________________.

For the following exercises, let $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ solve the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.$

$\frac{\pi }{2},\frac{3\pi }{2}$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{2}.$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ find the x -intercepts of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

$\frac{\pi }{2},\frac{3\pi }{2}$

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ find the x -values at which the function has a maximum or minimum value.

On $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right),$ solve the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}.$

$\frac{\pi }{6},\frac{11\pi }{6}$

## Technology

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(x\right)=x+\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right].\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Explain why the graph appears as it does.

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(x\right)=x+\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[-100,100\right].\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Did the graph appear as predicted in the previous exercise?

The graph appears linear. The linear functions dominate the shape of the graph for large values of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[0,2\pi \right]\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and verbalize how the graph varies from the graph of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on the window $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[-10,10\right]\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and explain what the graph shows.

The graph is symmetric with respect to the y -axis and there is no amplitude because the function is not periodic.

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x}{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on the window $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left[-5\pi ,5\pi \right]\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and explain what the graph shows.

## Real-world applications

A Ferris wheel is 25 meters in diameter and boarded from a platform that is 1 meter above the ground. The six o’clock position on the Ferris wheel is level with the loading platform. The wheel completes 1 full revolution in 10 minutes. The function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(t\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ gives a person’s height in meters above the ground t minutes after the wheel begins to turn.

1. Find the amplitude, midline, and period of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(t\right).$
2. Find a formula for the height function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(t\right).$
3. How high off the ground is a person after 5 minutes?
1. Amplitude: 12.5; period: 10; midline: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=13.5;$
2. $h\left(t\right)=12.5\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{\pi }{5}\left(t-2.5\right)\right)+13.5;$
3. 26 ft

can I get some pretty basic questions
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
x is different from -5&3
Seid
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
what is this?
i do not understand anything
unknown
lol...it gets better
Darius
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
Tiffany
how to solve polynomial using a calculator