The London Eye is a huge Ferris wheel with a diameter of 135 meters (443 feet). It completes one rotation every 30 minutes. Riders board from a platform 2 meters above the ground. Express a rider’s height above ground as a function of time in minutes.
With a diameter of 135 m, the wheel has a radius of 67.5 m. The height will oscillate with amplitude 67.5 m above and below the center.
Passengers board 2 m above ground level, so the center of the wheel must be located
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}67.5+2=69.5\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ m above ground level. The midline of the oscillation will be at 69.5 m.
The wheel takes 30 minutes to complete 1 revolution, so the height will oscillate with a period of 30 minutes.
Lastly, because the rider boards at the lowest point, the height will start at the smallest value and increase, following the shape of a vertically reflected cosine curve.
Amplitude:
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{67}\text{.5,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A=67.5$
Midline:
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{69}\text{.5,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}D=69.5$
Period:
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{30,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}B=\frac{2\pi}{30}=\frac{\pi}{15}$
Periodic functions repeat after a given value. The smallest such value is the period. The basic sine and cosine functions have a period of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\pi .$
The function
$\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is odd, so its graph is symmetric about the origin. The function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is even, so its graph is symmetric about the
y -axis.
The graph of a sinusoidal function has the same general shape as a sine or cosine function.
In the general formula for a sinusoidal function, the period is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P=\frac{2\pi}{\left|B\right|}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link] .
In the general formula for a sinusoidal function,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|A\right|\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ represents amplitude. If
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|A\right|>1,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the function is stretched, whereas if
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left|A\right|<1,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the function is compressed. See
[link] .
The value
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{C}{B}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in the general formula for a sinusoidal function indicates the phase shift. See
[link] .
The value
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}D\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in the general formula for a sinusoidal function indicates the vertical shift from the midline. See
[link] .
Combinations of variations of sinusoidal functions can be detected from an equation. See
[link] .
The equation for a sinusoidal function can be determined from a graph. See
[link] and
[link] .
A function can be graphed by identifying its amplitude and period. See
[link] and
[link] .
A function can also be graphed by identifying its amplitude, period, phase shift, and horizontal shift. See
[link] .
Sinusoidal functions can be used to solve real-world problems. See
[link] ,
[link] , and
[link] .
Section exercises
Verbal
Why are the sine and cosine functions called periodic functions?
The sine and cosine functions have the property that
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x+P\right)=f\left(x\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for a certain
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ This means that the function values repeat for every
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units on the
x -axis.
How does the graph of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ compare with the graph of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x?\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Explain how you could horizontally translate the graph of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to obtain
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis
vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As
'f(x)=y'.
According to Google,
"The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks.
"Â" or 'Â' ... Â
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Period =2π
if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
For Plan A to reach $27/month to surpass Plan B's $26.50 monthly payment, you'll need 3,000 texts which will cost an additional $10.00. So, for the amount of texts you need to send would need to range between 1-100 texts for the 100th increment, times that by 3 for the additional amount of texts...
Gilbert
...for one text payment for 300 for Plan A. So, that means Plan A; in my opinion is for people with text messaging abilities that their fingers burn the monitor for the cell phone. While Plan B would be for loners that doesn't need their fingers to due the talking; but those texts mean more then...