# 11.2 Arithmetic sequences

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In this section, you will:
• Find the common difference for an arithmetic sequence.
• Write terms of an arithmetic sequence.
• Use a recursive formula for an arithmetic sequence.
• Use an explicit formula for an arithmetic sequence.

Companies often make large purchases, such as computers and vehicles, for business use. The book-value of these supplies decreases each year for tax purposes. This decrease in value is called depreciation. One method of calculating depreciation is straight-line depreciation, in which the value of the asset decreases by the same amount each year.

As an example, consider a woman who starts a small contracting business. She purchases a new truck for $25,000. After five years, she estimates that she will be able to sell the truck for$8,000. The loss in value of the truck will therefore be $17,000, which is$3,400 per year for five years. The truck will be worth $21,600 after the first year;$18,200 after two years; $14,800 after three years;$11,400 after four years; and $8,000 at the end of five years. In this section, we will consider specific kinds of sequences that will allow us to calculate depreciation, such as the truck’s value. ## Finding common differences The values of the truck in the example are said to form an arithmetic sequence because they change by a constant amount each year. Each term increases or decreases by the same constant value called the common difference of the sequence. For this sequence, the common difference is –3,400. The sequence below is another example of an arithmetic sequence. In this case, the constant difference is 3. You can choose any term of the sequence , and add 3 to find the subsequent term. ## Arithmetic sequence An arithmetic sequence is a sequence that has the property that the difference between any two consecutive terms is a constant. This constant is called the common difference . If ${a}_{1}$ is the first term of an arithmetic sequence and $d$ is the common difference, the sequence will be: $\left\{{a}_{n}\right\}=\left\{{a}_{1},{a}_{1}+d,{a}_{1}+2d,{a}_{1}+3d,...\right\}$ ## Finding common differences Is each sequence arithmetic? If so, find the common difference. 1. $\left\{1,2,4,8,16,...\right\}$ 2. $\left\{-3,1,5,9,13,...\right\}$ Subtract each term from the subsequent term to determine whether a common difference exists. 1. The sequence is not arithmetic because there is no common difference. 2. The sequence is arithmetic because there is a common difference. The common difference is 4. If we are told that a sequence is arithmetic, do we have to subtract every term from the following term to find the common difference? No. If we know that the sequence is arithmetic, we can choose any one term in the sequence, and subtract it from the subsequent term to find the common difference. Is the given sequence arithmetic? If so, find the common difference. The sequence is arithmetic. The common difference is $–2.$ Is the given sequence arithmetic? If so, find the common difference. The sequence is not arithmetic because $3-1\ne 6-3.$ ## Writing terms of arithmetic sequences Now that we can recognize an arithmetic sequence, we will find the terms if we are given the first term and the common difference. The terms can be found by beginning with the first term and adding the common difference repeatedly. In addition, any term can also be found by plugging in the values of $n$ and $d$ into formula below. #### Questions & Answers I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once Carlos Reply How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ? Mary Reply generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph William if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero William y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope William y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis William y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer. Aaron yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0 William what is f(x)= Karim Reply I don't understand Joe Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain." Thomas Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-) Thomas GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!! Darius Thanks. Thomas Â Thomas It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â Thomas Now it shows, go figure? Thomas what is this? unknown Reply i do not understand anything unknown lol...it gets better Darius I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭 Tiffany this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts Darius thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out. Tiffany is there any question in particular? Joe I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously. Tiffany Sure, are you in high school or college? Darius Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college. Tiffany how to solve polynomial using a calculator Ef Reply So a horizontal compression by factor of 1/2 is the same as a horizontal stretch by a factor of 2, right? KARMEL Reply The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26 Rima Reply The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer? Rima I done know Joe What kind of answer is that😑? Rima I had just woken up when i got this message Joe Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that Rima i have a question. Abdul how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial? Abdul @abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up Nare This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1 Abdul @Nare please let me know if you can solve it. Abdul I have a question juweeriya hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me mustapha The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25. Brittany Reply how do you find the period of a sine graph Imani Reply Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period Am if not then how would I find it from a graph Imani by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates. Am you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts Am I will try that thank u Imani Case of Equilateral Hyperbola Jhon Reply ok Zander ok Shella f(x)=4x+2, find f(3) Benetta f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14 lamoussa 14 Vedant pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14 Devante 8x=40 Chris Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0 Baptiste Reply the sum of any two linear polynomial is what Esther Reply divide simplify each answer 3/2÷5/4 Momo Reply divide simplify each answer 25/3÷5/12 Momo how can are find the domain and range of a relations austin Reply the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain Morolake A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A:$15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B:$25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money? Diddy Reply 6000 Robert more than 6000 Robert For Plan A to reach$27/month to surpass Plan B's $26.50 monthly payment, you'll need 3,000 texts which will cost an additional$10.00. So, for the amount of texts you need to send would need to range between 1-100 texts for the 100th increment, times that by 3 for the additional amount of texts...
Gilbert
...for one text payment for 300 for Plan A. So, that means Plan A; in my opinion is for people with text messaging abilities that their fingers burn the monitor for the cell phone. While Plan B would be for loners that doesn't need their fingers to due the talking; but those texts mean more then...
Gilbert

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