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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Pre-class Online Quiz - Case Control Studies
Download Pre Quiz PDF eBook
9 Pages
2015
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Pre-class Online Quiz - Case Control Studies Quiz

Question: Which of the following is the best interpretation of the measure of association calculated in question 4:

Choices:

People who have colon cancer have “x” times the odds of using aspirin compared to those who do not have colon cancer.

People who have used aspirin have “x” times the odds of developing colon cancer compared to never-users.

The excess risk of colon cancer among people who have used aspirin is “x”.

The excess risk of colon cancer among people who have not used aspirin is “x”.

Question: Using the data given above in question 3, calculate the appropriate measure of association. The numeric value is...

Choices:

0.1

3.3

7.4

10.2

Question: Case-control studies are efficient for studying multiple health effects (diseases) caused by a single exposure

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which of the following statements about case-control studies are true? (Choose all that apply)

Choices:

They are generally less costly than prospective cohort studies

They are efficient for assessing diseases with long term latency (the period between exposure and disease occurrence)

They are not efficient for rare exposures

They are not efficient for rare outcomes

Question: A study was conducted among men aged 40-70 to determine whether regularly exercising two or more hours per week decreases the likelihood of having a heart attack. Cases were 1,000 men who had recently had a heart attack; of these 200 reported that they had regularly exercised for two or more hours per week prior to their heart attack. Controls were 2,000 men who had never had a heart attack; of these, 750 reported that they regularly exercised two or more hours per week. Set up the 2-by-2 table for these data. The numeric value of the appropriate measure of association for these data is . . .

Choices:

0.42

0.54

1.85

2.38

Question: A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between aspirin use and the risk of colon cancer. A total of 1,500 cases and 1,500 controls were enrolled in the study. Of the cases, 1,300 reported using aspirin in the past while 700 of the controls reported using aspirin in the past. Set up the 2-by-2 table for these data. Which measure of association should be calculated to determine the strength of the relationship between aspirin and colon cancer?

Choices:

Odds ratio

Population attributable risk

Rate ratio

Risk ratio

Question: It is not desirable to use a case-control study

Choices:

When the disease is rare

When the exposure is rare

When exposure data are difficult or expensive to obtain

When the disease has a long latent period

Question: This question is based on the following article: Handheld Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Brain Cancer. JAMA: 2000 Dec; 284(23):3001 -3007. In this study, 469 men and women with brain cancer aged 18-80 years from participating hospitals were matched to 422 controls from those same hospitals. The investigators subsequently compared their past and current use of cellular telephones. After adjusting for confounders, the odds ratio comparing those who never used cellular telephones with past or present users was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.6-1.2). From the information above, which of the following are correct? (Select all that apply.)

Choices:

This type of study is efficient in comparing rare outcomes.

One of the goals of choosing controls from the same hospitals as the cases in this study was to avoid selection bias.

The internal validity of the study would have been improved if the controls were selected from the general population.

In general, this type of study is prone to selection bias, because it is retrospective, and outcome status has already been established at the beginning of the study.

Question: Which of the following statements is true regarding case-control studies?

Choices:

Like cohort studies, case-control studies compare incidences

The odds ratio provides a fairly accurate estimate of a relative risk given that the outcome is uncommon

An odds ratio can only be calculated in case-control studies and not in cohort type studies

It is not correct to interpret an odds ratio as if it were a risk ratio

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