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How does bet work?

Adsorption is defined as the adhesion of atoms or molecules of gas to a surface. It should be noted that adsorption is not confused with absorption, in which a fluid permeates a liquid or solid. The amount of gas adsorbed depends on the exposed surface are but also on the temperature, gas pressure and strength of interaction between the gas and solid. In BET surface area analysis, nitrogen is usually used because of its availability in high purity and its strong interaction with most solids. Because the interaction between gaseous and solid phases is usually weak, the surface is cooled using liquid N 2 to obtain detectable amounts of adsorption. Known amounts of nitrogen gas are then released stepwise into the sample cell. Relative pressures less than atmospheric pressure is achieved by creating conditions of partial vacuum. After the saturation pressure, no more adsorption occurs regardless of any further increase in pressure. Highly precise and accurate pressure transducers monitor the pressure changes due to the adsorption process. After the adsorption layers are formed, the sample is removed from the nitrogen atmosphere and heated to cause the adsorbed nitrogen to be released from the material and quantified. The data collected is displayed in the form of a BET isotherm, which plots the amount of gas adsorbed as a function of the relative pressure. There are five types of adsorption isotherms possible.

Type i isotherm

Type I is a pseudo-Langmuir isotherm because it depicts monolayer adsorption ( [link] ). A type I isotherm is obtained when P/P o <1 and c>1 in the BET equation, where P/P o is the partial pressure value and c is the BET constant, which is related to the adsorption energy of the first monolayer and varies from solid to solid. The characterization of microporous materials, those with pore diameters less than 2 nm, gives this type of isotherm.

The isotherm plots the volume of gas adsorbed onto the surface of the sample as pressure increases. Adapted from S. Brunauer L. S. Deming, W. E. Deming, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 1940, 62 , 1723.

Type ii isotherm

A type II isotherm ( [link] ) is very different than the Langmuir model. The flatter region in the middle represents the formation of a monolayer. A type II isotherm is obtained when c>1 in the BET equation. This is the most common isotherm obtained when using the BET technique. At very low pressures, the micropores fill with nitrogen gas. At the knee, monolayer formation is beginning and multilayer formation occurs at medium pressure. At the higher pressures, capillary condensation occurs.

The isotherm plots the volume of gas adsorbed onto the surface of the sample as pressure increases. Adapted from S. Brunauer, L. S. Deming, W. E. Deming, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 1940, 62 , 1723.

Type iii isotherm

A type III isotherm ( [link] ) is obtained when the c<1 and shows the formation of a multilayer. Because there is no asymptote in the curve, no monolayer is formed and BET is not applicable.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
saksham Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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