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How does bet work?

Adsorption is defined as the adhesion of atoms or molecules of gas to a surface. It should be noted that adsorption is not confused with absorption, in which a fluid permeates a liquid or solid. The amount of gas adsorbed depends on the exposed surface are but also on the temperature, gas pressure and strength of interaction between the gas and solid. In BET surface area analysis, nitrogen is usually used because of its availability in high purity and its strong interaction with most solids. Because the interaction between gaseous and solid phases is usually weak, the surface is cooled using liquid N 2 to obtain detectable amounts of adsorption. Known amounts of nitrogen gas are then released stepwise into the sample cell. Relative pressures less than atmospheric pressure is achieved by creating conditions of partial vacuum. After the saturation pressure, no more adsorption occurs regardless of any further increase in pressure. Highly precise and accurate pressure transducers monitor the pressure changes due to the adsorption process. After the adsorption layers are formed, the sample is removed from the nitrogen atmosphere and heated to cause the adsorbed nitrogen to be released from the material and quantified. The data collected is displayed in the form of a BET isotherm, which plots the amount of gas adsorbed as a function of the relative pressure. There are five types of adsorption isotherms possible.

Type i isotherm

Type I is a pseudo-Langmuir isotherm because it depicts monolayer adsorption ( [link] ). A type I isotherm is obtained when P/P o <1 and c>1 in the BET equation, where P/P o is the partial pressure value and c is the BET constant, which is related to the adsorption energy of the first monolayer and varies from solid to solid. The characterization of microporous materials, those with pore diameters less than 2 nm, gives this type of isotherm.

The isotherm plots the volume of gas adsorbed onto the surface of the sample as pressure increases. Adapted from S. Brunauer L. S. Deming, W. E. Deming, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 1940, 62 , 1723.

Type ii isotherm

A type II isotherm ( [link] ) is very different than the Langmuir model. The flatter region in the middle represents the formation of a monolayer. A type II isotherm is obtained when c>1 in the BET equation. This is the most common isotherm obtained when using the BET technique. At very low pressures, the micropores fill with nitrogen gas. At the knee, monolayer formation is beginning and multilayer formation occurs at medium pressure. At the higher pressures, capillary condensation occurs.

The isotherm plots the volume of gas adsorbed onto the surface of the sample as pressure increases. Adapted from S. Brunauer, L. S. Deming, W. E. Deming, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 1940, 62 , 1723.

Type iii isotherm

A type III isotherm ( [link] ) is obtained when the c<1 and shows the formation of a multilayer. Because there is no asymptote in the curve, no monolayer is formed and BET is not applicable.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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