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A simplified circuit diagram of a thermal conductivity detector.

This detector is part of a typical commercial instrument such as a Micromeritics AutoChem 2920 ( [link] ). This instrument is an automated analyzer with the ability to perform chemical adsorption and temperature-programmed reactions on a catalyst, catalyst support, or other materials.

A photograph of a Micromeritics AutoChem 2920.

Temperature programmed reduction (tpr)

TPR will determine the number of reducible species on a catalyst and will tell at what temperature each of these species was reduced. For example palladium is ordinarily found as Pd(0) or Pd(II), i.e., oxidation states 0 and +2. Pd(II) can be reduced at very low temperatures (5 - 10 °C) to Pd(0) following [link] .

PdO+H 2 Pd(0)+H 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=faaagCart1ev2aaaKnaaaaWenf2ys9wBH5garuavP1wzZbqedmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8FesqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9Gqpi0dc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaeiuaiaabsgacaqGpbGaae4kaiaabIeadaWgaaWcbaGaaeOmaaqabaGccqGHsgIRcaqGqbGaaeizaiaabIcacaqGWaGaaeykaiaabUcacaqGibWaaSbaaSqaaiaabkdaaeqaaOGaae4taaaa@3BF0@

A 128.9 mg 1wt% Pd/Al 2 O 3 samples is used for the experiment, [link] . Since we want to study the oxidation state of the commercial catalyst, no pre-treatment needs to be executed to the sample. A 10% hydrogen-argon mixture is used as analysis and reference gas. Argon has a low thermal conductivity and hydrogen has a much higher thermal conductivity. All gases will flow at 50 cm 3 /min. The TPR experiment will start at an initial temperature of 200 K, temperature ramp 10 K/min, and final temperature of 400 K. The H 2 /Ar mixture is flowed through the sample, and past the detector in the analysis port. While in the reference port the mixture doesn’t become in contact with the sample. When the analysis gas starts flowing over the sample, a baseline reading is established by the detector. The baseline is established at the initial temperature to ensure there is no reduction. While this gas is flowing, the temperature of the sample is increased linearly with time and the consumption of hydrogen is recorded. Hydrogen atoms react with oxygen atoms to form H 2 O.

A sample of Pd/Al 2 O 3 in a typical sample holder.

Water molecules are removed from the gas stream using a cold trap. As a result, the amount of hydrogen in the argon/hydrogen gas mixture decreases and the thermal conductivity of the mixture also decrease. The change is compared to the reference gas and yields to a hydrogen uptake volume. [link] is a typical TPR profile for PdO.

tpr
A typical TPR profile of PdO. Adapted from R. Zhang, J. A. Schwarz, A. Datye, and J. P. Baltrus, J. Catal. , 1992, 138 , 55.

Pulse chemisorption

Once the catalyst (1 wt% Pd/Al 2 O 3 ) has been completely reduced, the user will be able to determine how much palladium is active. A pulse chemisorption experiment will determine active surface area, percentage of metal dispersion and particle size. Pulses of hydrogen will be introduced to the sample tube in order to interact with the sample. In each pulse hydrogen will undergo a dissociative adsorption on to palladium active sites until all palladium atoms have reacted. After all active sites have reacted, the hydrogen pulses emerge unchanged from the sample tube. The amount of hydrogen chemisorbed is calculated as the total amount of hydrogen injected minus the total amount eluted from the system.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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