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Introduction

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate the components in a mixture, and to identify and quantify each component. It was initially discovered as an analytical technique in the early twentieth century and was first used to separate colored compounds. The word chromatography means color writing . It was the botanist M. S. Tswett ( [link] ) who invented this method in around 1900 to study leaf pigments (mainly chlorophyll). He separated the pigments based on their interaction with a stationary phase. In 1906 Tswett published two fundamental papers describing the various aspects of liquid-adsorption chromatography in detail. He also pointed out that in spite of its name, other substances also could be separated by chromatography. The modern high performance liquid chromatography has developed from this separation; the separation efficiency, versatility and speed have been improved significantly.

Russian born Italian botanist Mikhail Semyonovich Tswett (1872-1919).

The molecular species subjected to separation exist in a sample that is made of analytes and matrix . The analytes are the molecular species of interest, and the matrix is the rest of the components in the sample. For chromatographic separation, the sample is introduced in a flowing mobile phase that passes a stationary phase . Mobile phase is a moving liquid, and is characterized by its composition, solubility, UV transparency, viscosity, and miscibility with other solvents. Stationary phase is a stationary medium, which can be a stagnant bulk liquid, a liquid layer on the solid phase, or an interfacial layer between liquid and solid. In HPLC, the stationary phase is typically in the form of a column packed with very small porous particles and the liquid mobile phase is moved through the column by a pump. The development of HPLC is mainly the development of the new columns, which requires new particles, new stationary phases (particle coatings), and improved procedures for packing the column. A picture of modern HPLC is shown in [link] .

A picture of modern HPLC instrument.

Instrumentation

The major components of a HPLC are shown in [link] . The role of a pump is to force a liquid (mobile phase) through at a specific flow rate (milliliters per minute). The injector serves to introduce the liquid sample into the flow stream of the mobile phase. Column is the most central and important component of HPLC, and the column’s stationary phase separates the sample components of interest using various physical and chemical parameters. The detector is to detect the individual molecules that elute from the column. The computer usually functions as the data system, and the computer not only controls all the modules of the HPLC instrument but it takes the signal from the detector and uses it to determine the retention time, the sample components, and quantitative analysis.

Schematic representation of a HPLC system: (1) solvent, (2) gradient valve, (3) high-pressure pump, (4) sample injection loop, (5) analytical column, (6) detector, and (7) computer.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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