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  • For the nanoparticles sample it is necessary to make sure the final concentration of the nanoparticles will not exceed 1 mM.
  • For the buffer solution, it is enough to dissolve 8 g of NaCl in DI water.
  • For the SDS solution, 2 g of SDS should be dissolved very slowly in approximate 200 mL of DI water, then 100 mL aliquots of DI water is added until the volume is 1 L. This is in order to avoid the formation of bubbles and foam in the solution.

Instrument preparation

Due to the sensitivity of the equipment, it is important to rinse and clean the tubing before loading any sample or performing any experiments. To rinse the tubing and the chambers, use a solution of 2% of SDS. For this purpose, a cycle in the autosampler equipment is program with the steps shown in [link] .

Summary of cleaning processes.
Step Duration (min) Speed (μL/min) Volume (mL)
DI water (1:2) 10 100 1
SDS (1:1) 20 300 6
DI water (1:2) 10 100 1

Once the equipment is cleaned, it is ready to perform an experiment, a second program in the autosampler is loaded with the parameters shown in [link] .

Experimental set-up.
Step Duration (min) Speed (μL/min) Volume (mL)
Buffer (1:3) 7 100 0.7
Nanoparticles (1:4) 30 100 3.0

The purpose of flowing the buffer in the beginning is to provide a background signal to take into account when running the samples. Usually a small quantity of the sample is loaded into the sensor at a very slow flow rate in order to let the deposition take place.

Data acquisition

Example data obtained with the above parameters is shown in [link] . The blue squares depict the change in the frequency. As the experiment continues, the frequency decreases as more mass is deposited. On the other hand, shown as the red squares, the dissipation increases, describing the increase of both the height and certain loss of the rigidity in the layer from the top of the sensor. To illustrate the different steps of the experiment, each section has been color coded. The blue part of the data obtained corresponds to the flow of the buffer, while the yellow part corresponds to the deposition equilibrium of the nanoparticles onto the gold surface. After certain length of time equilibrium is reached and there is no further change. Once equilibrium indicates no change for about five minutes, it is safe to say the deposition will not change.

Data of deposition of nMag in a gold surface.

Instrument clean-up

As a measure preventive care for the equipment, the same cleaning procedure should be followed as what was done before loading the sample. Use of a 2% solution of SDS helps to ensure the equipment remains as clean as possible.

Data modeling

Once the data has been obtained, QTools (software that is available in the software suit of the equipment) can be used to convert the change in the frequency to areal mass, via the Sauerbrey equation, [link] . The correspondent graph of areal mass is shown in [link] . From this graph we can observe how the mass is increasing as the nMag is deposited in the surface of the sensor. The blue section again illustrates the part of the experiment where only buffer was been flown to the chamber. The yellow part illustrates the deposition, while the green part shows no change in the mass after a period of time, which indicates the deposition is finished. The conversion from areal mass to mass is a simple process, as gold sensors come with a definite area of 1 cm 2 , but a more accurate measure should be taken when using functionalized sensors.

Areal mass of deposition of nMag into gold surface.

It is important to take into account the limitations of the Saubery equation, because the equation accounts for a uniform layer on top of the surface of the sensor. Deviations due to clusters of material deposited in one place or the formation of partial multilayers in the sensor cannot be calculated through this model. Further characterization of the surface should be done to have a more accurate model of the phenomena.


  • Biolin Scientific, Cleaning and Immobilization Protocols (2004).
  • F. Hook, Development of a Novel QCM Technique for Protein Adsorption Studies , Chalmers University (1997).
  • C. Ziez, Theoretical and Experimental Analysis on Nanoparticle-Nanoparticle and Nanoparticle-Surface Interactions and their Role in Defining their Stability and Mobility , Rice University (2013).

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
saksham Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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