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ESI-QTOF-MS has very high resolution and HPLC is being widely used to seperate different molecules. And it is not that easy to determine the target molecules in food for the complex matrix. By using ESI-QTOF-MS coupled to HPLC, we can reduce the matrix effect and increase the sensitivity a lot. So it is a very useful technique. This module will be helpful to the people detecting toxic molecules in food. And those who study some molecules in biological samples will also feel it is useful.

Introduction

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a very powerful separation method widely used in environmental science, pharmaceutical industry, biological and chemical research and other fields. Generally, it can be used to purify, identify and/or quantify one or several components in a mixture simultaneously.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is a detection technique by measuring mass-to-charge ratio of ionic species. The procedure consists of different steps. First, a sample is injected in the instrument and then evaporated. Second, species in the sample are charged by certain ionized methods, such as electron ionization (EI), electrospray ionization (ESI), chemical ionization (CI), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Finally, the ionic species wil be analyzed depending on their mass-to-charge ratio ( m / z ) in the analyzer, such as quadrupole, time-of-flight (TOF), ion trap and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance.

The mass spectrometric identification is widely used together with chromatographic separation. The most common ones are gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Because of the high sensitivity, selectivity and relatively low price of GC-MS, it has very wide applications in drug detection, environmental analysis and so forth. For those organic chemistry research groups, it is also a daily-used and convenient equipment. However, GC-MS is ineffective if the molecules have high boiling point and/or will be decomposed at high temperature.

In this module, we will mainly talk about liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-QTOF-MS). As mentioned above, the LC has an efficient capacity of separation and MS has a high sensitivity and strong ability of structural characterization. Furthermore, TOF-MS, has several distinctive properties on top of regular MS, including fast acquisition rates, high accuracy in mass measurements and a large mass range. The combination of LC and ESI-TOF-MS allow us to obtain a powerful in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of molecules in complex matrices by reducing the matrix interferences. It may play an important role in the area of food safety.

How it works

Generally, LC-MS has four components, including an autosampler, HPLC, ionization source and mass spectrometer, as shown in [link] . Here we need to pay attention to the interface of HPLC and MS so that they can be suitable to each other and be connected. There are specified separation column for HPLC-MS, whose inner diameter (I.D.) is usually 2.0 mm. And the flow rate, which is 0.05 - 0.2 mL/min, is slower than typical HPLC. For the mobile phase, we use the combination of water and methanol and/acetonitrile. And because ions will inhibit the signals in MS, if we want to modify to mobile phase, the modifier should be volatile, such as HCO 2 H, CH 3 CO 2 H, [NH 4 ][HCO 2 ] and [NH 4 ][CH 3 CO 2 ].

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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