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Introduction

A single crystal of either an elemental (e.g., silicon) or compound (e.g., gallium arsenide) semiconductor forms the basis of almost all semiconductor devices. The ability to control the electronic and opto-electronic properties of these materials is based on an understanding of their structure. In addition, the metals and many of the insulators employed within a microelectronic device are also crystalline.

Group iv (14) elements

Each of the semiconducting phases of the group IV (14) elements, C (diamond), Si, Ge, and α-Sn, adopt the diamond cubic structure ( [link] ). Their lattice constants ( a , Å) and densities (ρ, g/cm 3 ) are given in [link] .

Unit cell structure of a diamond cubic lattice showing the two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices.
Lattice parameters and densities (measured at 298 K) for the diamond cubic forms of the group IV (14) elements.
Element Lattice parameter, a (Å) Density (g/cm 3 )
carbon (diamond) 3.56683(1) 3.51525
silicon 5.4310201(3) 2.319002
germanium 5.657906(1) 5.3234
tin (α-Sn) 6.4892(1) 7.285

As would be expected the lattice parameter increase in the order C<Si<Ge<α-Sn. Silicon and germanium form a continuous series of solid solutions with gradually varying parameters. It is worth noting the high degree of accuracy that the lattice parameters are known for high purity crystals of these elements. In addition, it is important to note the temperature at which structural measurements are made, since the lattice parameters are temperature dependent ( [link] ). The lattice constant ( a ), in Å, for high purity silicon may be calculated for any temperature (T) over the temperature range 293 - 1073 K by the formula shown below.

a T = 5.4304 + 1.8138 X 10 -5 (T - 298.15 K) + 1.542 X 10 -9 (T – 298.15 K)

Temperature dependence of the lattice parameter for (a) Si and (b) Ge.

Even though the diamond cubic forms of Si and Ge are the only forms of direct interest to semiconductor devices, each exists in numerous crystalline high pressure and meta-stable forms. These are described along with their interconversions, in [link] .

High pressure and metastable phases of silicon and germanium.
Phase Structure Remarks
Si I diamond cubic stable at normal pressure
Si II grey tin structure formed from Si I or Si V above 14 GPa
Si III cubic metastable, formed from Si II above 10 GPa
Si IV hexagonal
Si V unidentified stable above 34 GPa, formed from Si II above 16 GPa
Si VI hexagonal close packed stable above 45 GPa
Ge I diamond cubic low-pressure phase
Ge II β-tin structure formed from Ge I above 10 GPa
Ge III tetragonal formed by quenching Ge II at low pressure
Ge IV body centered cubic formed by quenching Ge II to 1 atm at 200 K

Group iii-v (13-15) compounds

The stable phases for the arsenides, phosphides and antimonides of aluminum, gallium and indium all exhibit zinc blende structures ( [link] ). In contrast, the nitrides are found as wurtzite structures (e.g., [link] ). The structure, lattice parameters, and densities of the III-V compounds are given in [link] . It is worth noting that contrary to expectation the lattice parameter of the gallium compounds is smaller than their aluminum homolog; for GaAs a = 5.653 Å; AlAs a = 5.660 Å. As with the group IV elements the lattice parameters are highly temperature dependent; however, additional variation arises from any deviation from absolute stoichiometry. These effects are shown in [link] .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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