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In the food industry, AAS provides analysis of vegetables, animal products, and animal feeds. These kinds of analyses are some of the oldest application of AAS. An important consideration that needs to be taken into account in food analysis is sampling. The sample should be an accurate representation of what is being analyzed. Because of this, it must be homogenous, and many it is often needed that several samples are run. Food samples are most often run in order to determine mineral and trace element amounts so that consumers know if they are consuming an adequate amount. Samples are also analyzed to determine heavy metals which can be detrimental to consumers.

Environmental and marine analysis

Environmental and marine analysis typically refers to water analysis of various types. Water analysis includes many things ranging from drinking water to waste water to sea water. Unlike biological samples, the preparation of water samples is governed more by laws than by the sample itself. The analytes that can be measured also vary greatly and can often include lead, copper, nickel, and mercury.

An example of water analysis is an analysis of leaching of lead and zinc from tin-lead solder into water. The solder is what binds the joints of copper pipes. In this particular experiment, soft water, acidic water, and chlorinated water were all analyzed. The sample preparation consisted of exposing the various water samples to copper plates with solder for various intervals of time. The samples were then analyzed for copper and zinc with air-acetylene flame AAS. A deuterium lamp was used. For the samples that had copper levels below 100 µg/L, the method was changed to graphite furnace electrothermal AAS due to its higher sensitivity.

Geological analysis

Geological analysis encompasses both mineral reserves and environmental research. When prospecting mineral reserves, the method of AAS used needs to be cheap, fast, and versatile because the majority of prospects end up being of no economic use. When studying rocks, preparation can include acid digestions or leaching. If the sample needs to have silicon content analyzed, acid digestion is not a suitable preparation method.

An example is the analysis of lake and river sediment for lead and cadmium. Because this experiment involves a solid sample, more preparation is needed than for the other examples. The sediment was first dried, then grounded into a powder, and then was decomposed in a bomb with nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and perchloric acid (HClO 4 ). Standards of lead and cadmium were prepared. Ammonium sulfate ([NH 4 ][SO 4 ]) and ammonium phosphate ([NH 4 ][ 3 PO 4 ]) were added to the samples to correct for the interferences caused by sodium and potassium that are present in the sample. The standards and samples were then analyzed with electrothermal AAS.

Instrumentation

Atomizer

In order for the sample to be analyzed, it must first be atomized. This is an extremely important step in AAS because it determines the sensitivity of the reading. The most effective atomizers create a large number of homogenous free atoms. There are many types of atomizers, but only two are commonly used: flame and electrothermal atomizers.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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