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In the food industry, AAS provides analysis of vegetables, animal products, and animal feeds. These kinds of analyses are some of the oldest application of AAS. An important consideration that needs to be taken into account in food analysis is sampling. The sample should be an accurate representation of what is being analyzed. Because of this, it must be homogenous, and many it is often needed that several samples are run. Food samples are most often run in order to determine mineral and trace element amounts so that consumers know if they are consuming an adequate amount. Samples are also analyzed to determine heavy metals which can be detrimental to consumers.

Environmental and marine analysis

Environmental and marine analysis typically refers to water analysis of various types. Water analysis includes many things ranging from drinking water to waste water to sea water. Unlike biological samples, the preparation of water samples is governed more by laws than by the sample itself. The analytes that can be measured also vary greatly and can often include lead, copper, nickel, and mercury.

An example of water analysis is an analysis of leaching of lead and zinc from tin-lead solder into water. The solder is what binds the joints of copper pipes. In this particular experiment, soft water, acidic water, and chlorinated water were all analyzed. The sample preparation consisted of exposing the various water samples to copper plates with solder for various intervals of time. The samples were then analyzed for copper and zinc with air-acetylene flame AAS. A deuterium lamp was used. For the samples that had copper levels below 100 µg/L, the method was changed to graphite furnace electrothermal AAS due to its higher sensitivity.

Geological analysis

Geological analysis encompasses both mineral reserves and environmental research. When prospecting mineral reserves, the method of AAS used needs to be cheap, fast, and versatile because the majority of prospects end up being of no economic use. When studying rocks, preparation can include acid digestions or leaching. If the sample needs to have silicon content analyzed, acid digestion is not a suitable preparation method.

An example is the analysis of lake and river sediment for lead and cadmium. Because this experiment involves a solid sample, more preparation is needed than for the other examples. The sediment was first dried, then grounded into a powder, and then was decomposed in a bomb with nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and perchloric acid (HClO 4 ). Standards of lead and cadmium were prepared. Ammonium sulfate ([NH 4 ][SO 4 ]) and ammonium phosphate ([NH 4 ][ 3 PO 4 ]) were added to the samples to correct for the interferences caused by sodium and potassium that are present in the sample. The standards and samples were then analyzed with electrothermal AAS.



In order for the sample to be analyzed, it must first be atomized. This is an extremely important step in AAS because it determines the sensitivity of the reading. The most effective atomizers create a large number of homogenous free atoms. There are many types of atomizers, but only two are commonly used: flame and electrothermal atomizers.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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