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Gamma and particle detectors

As mentioned earlier, most detectors used in NAA are designed to detect the gamma rays emitted from the decaying nucleus. Two widely used gamma detectors are the scintillation type and the semiconductor type. The former uses a sensitive crystal, often sodium iodide that is doped with thallium (NaI(Tl)), that emits light when gamma rays strike it. Semiconductor detectors, on the other hand, use germanium to form a diode that produces a signal in response to gamma radiation. The signal produced is proportional to the energy of the emitted gamma radiation. Both types of gamma detectors have excellent sensitivity with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 10 6 nanogram element per gram sample, but semiconductor type detectors usually have superior resolution.

Furthermore, particles detectors designed to detect the alpha and beta particles that are emitted in nuclear decay are also available; however, gamma detectors are favorable. Particle detectors require a high vacuum since atmospheric gases in the air can absorb and affect the emission of these particles. Gamma rays are not affected in this way.

Variations/parameters

Inaa versus rnaa

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the simplest and most widely used form of NAA. It involves the direct irradiation of the sample, meaning that the sample does not undergo any chemical separation or treatment prior to detection. INAA can only be used if the activity of the other radioactive isotopes in the sample does not interfere with the measurement of the element(s) of interest. Interference often occurs when the element(s) of interest are present in trace or ultratrace amounts. If interference does occur, the activity of the other radioactive isotopes must be removed or eliminated. Radiochemical separation is one way to do this. NAA that involves sample decomposition and elemental separation is known as radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). In RNAA, the interfering elements are separated from the element(s) of interest through an appropriate separation method. Such methods include extractions, precipitations, distillations, and ion exchanges. Inactive elements and matrices are often added to ensure appropriate conditions and typical behavior for the element(s) of interest. A schematic comparison of INAA and RNAA is shown below in [link] .

Schematic Comparison of INAA and RNAA. Adapted from Neutron Activation Analysis Online, http://www.naa-online.net/theory/types-of-naa/, (accessed February 2014).

Enaa versus fnaa

Another experimental parameter that must be considered is the kinetic energy of the neutrons used for irradiation. In epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), the neutrons – known as epithermal neutrons – are partially moderated in the reactor and have kinetic energies between 0.5 eV to 0.5 MeV. These are lower-energy neutrons as compared to fast neutrons, which are used in fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). Fast neutrons are high-energy, unmoderated neutrons with kinetic energies above 0.5 MeV.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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