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The applications of the QCM-D ranges from the deposition of nanoparticles into a surface, from the interaction of proteins within certain substrates. It can also monitors the bacterial amount of products when feed with different molecules, as the flexibility of the sensors into what can be deposited in them include nanoparticle, special functionalization or even cell and bacterias!

Experimental planning

In order to use QCM-D for studing the interaction of nanoparticles with a specific surface several steps must be followed. For demonstration purposes the following procedure will describe the use of a Q-Sense E4 with autosampler from Biolin Scientific. A summary is shown below as a quick guide to follow, but further details will be explained:

  1. Surface election and cleaning according with the manufacturer recommendations.
  2. Sample preparation including having the correct dilutions and enough sample for the running experiment.
  3. Equipment cleaning and set up of the correct parameters for the experiment.
  4. Data acquisition.
  5. Data interpretation.

Surface election

The decision of what surface of the the sensor to use is the most important decision to make fore each study. Biolin has a large library of available coatings ranging from different compositions of pure elements and oxides ( [link] ) to specific binding proteins. It is important to take into account the different chemistries of the sensors and the results we are looking for. For example studying a protein with high sulfur content on a gold sensor can lead to a false deposition results, as gold and sulfur have a high affinity to form bonds. For the purpose of this example, a gold coated sensor will be used in the remainder of the discussion.

From left to right, silica (SiO 2 ), gold (Au), and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) coated sensors. Each one is 1 cm in diameter.

Sensor cleaning

Since QCM-D relies on the amount of mass that is deposited into the surface of the sensor, a thorough cleaning is needed to ensure there is no contaminants on the surface that can lead to errors in the measurement. The procedure the manufacturer established to clean a gold sensor is as follows:

  1. Put the sensor in the UV/ozone chamber for 10 minutes
  2. Prepare 10 mL of a 5:1:1 solution of hydrogen peroxide:ammonia:water
  3. Submerge in this solution at 75 °C for 5 minutes.
  4. Rinse with copious amount of milliQ water.
  5. Dry with inert gas.
  6. Put the sensor in the UV/ozone chamber for 10 minutes as shown in [link] .
Gold sensors in loader of the UV/ozone chamber in the final step of the cleaning process.

Once the sensors are clean, extreme caution should be taken to avoid contamination of the surface. The sensors can be loaded in the flow chamber of the equipment making sure that the T-mark of the sensor matches the T mark of the chamber in order to make sure the electrodes are in constant contact. The correct position is shown in [link] .

Correct position of the sensor in the chamber.

Sample preparation

As the top range of mass that can be detected is merely micrograms, solutions must be prepared accordingly. For a typical run, a buffer solution is needed in which the deposition will be studied as well as, the sample itself and a solution of 2% of sodium dodecylsulfate [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CH 2 OSO 3 Na, SDS]. For this example we will be using nanoparticles of magnetic iron oxide (nMag) coated with PAMS, and as a buffer 8% NaCl in DI water.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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