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Wurtzite

This is a hexagonal form of the zinc sulfide. It is identical in the number of and types of atoms, but it is built from two interpenetrating hcp lattices as opposed to the fcc lattices in zinc blende. As with zinc blende all the atoms in a wurtzite structure are 4-coordinate. The wurtzite unit cell is shown in [link] . A number of inter atomic distances may be calculated for any material with a wurtzite cell using the lattice parameter ( a ).

However, it should be noted that these formulae do not necessarily apply when the ratio a / c is different from the ideal value of 1.632.

Unit cell structure of a wurtzite lattice. Zinc atoms are shown in green (small spheres), sulfur atoms shown in red (large spheres), and the dashed lines show the unit cell.

Cesium chloride

The cesium chloride structure is found in materials with large cations and relatively small anions. It has a simple (primitive) cubic cell ( [link] ) with a chloride ion at the corners of the cube and the cesium ion at the body center. The coordination numbers of both Cs + and Cl - , with the inner atomic distances determined from the cell lattice constant ( a ).

Β-tin.

The room temperature allotrope of tin is β-tin or white tin. It has a tetragonal structure, in which each tin atom has four nearest neighbors (Sn-Sn = 3.016 Å) arranged in a very flattened tetrahedron, and two next nearest neighbors (Sn-Sn = 3.175 Å). The overall structure of β-tin consists of fused hexagons, each being linked to its neighbor via a four-membered Sn 4 ring.

Defects in crystalline solids

Up to this point we have only been concerned with ideal structures for crystalline solids in which each atom occupies a designated point in the crystal lattice. Unfortunately, defects ordinarily exist in equilibrium between the crystal lattice and its environment. These defects are of two general types: point defects and extended defects. As their names imply, point defects are associated with a single crystal lattice site, while extended defects occur over a greater range.

Point defects: “too many or too few” or “just plain wrong”

Point defects have a significant effect on the properties of a semiconductor, so it is important to understand the classes of point defects and the characteristics of each type. [link] summarizes various classes of native point defects, however, they may be divided into two general classes; defects with the wrong number of atoms (deficiency or surplus) and defects where the identity of the atoms is incorrect.

Point defects in a crystal lattice.

Interstitial impurity

An interstitial impurity occurs when an extra atom is positioned in a lattice site that should be vacant in an ideal structure ( [link] b). Since all the adjacent lattice sites are filled the additional atom will have to squeeze itself into the interstitial site, resulting in distortion of the lattice and alteration in the local electronic behavior of the structure. Small atoms, such as carbon, will prefer to occupy these interstitial sites. Interstitial impurities readily diffuse through the lattice via interstitial diffusion, which can result in a change of the properties of a material as a function of time. Oxygen impurities in silicon generally are located as interstitials.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
saksham Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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