<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
A schematic of a double-beam spectrometer showing the 50/50 beam splitters (1) and the mirrors (2).

Obtaining measurements

Sample preparation

Sample preparation is extremely varied because of the range of samples that can be analyzed. Regardless of the type of sample, certain considerations should be made. These include the laboratory environment, the vessel holding the sample, storage of the sample, and pretreatment of the sample.

Sample preparation begins with having a clean environment to work in. AAS is often used to measure trace elements, in which case contamination can lead to severe error. Possible equipment includes laminar flow hoods, clean rooms, and closed, clean vessels for transportation of the sample. Not only must the sample be kept clean, it also needs to be conserved in terms of pH, constituents, and any other properties that could alter the contents.

When trace elements are stored, the material of the vessel walls can adsorb some of the analyte leading to poor results. To correct for this, perfluoroalkoxy polymers (PFA), silica, glassy carbon, and other materials with inert surfaces are often used as the storage material. Acidifying the solution with hydrochloric or nitric acid can also help prevent ions from adhering to the walls of the vessel by competing for the space. The vessels should also contain a minimal surface area in order to minimize possible adsorption sites.

Pretreatment of the sample is dependent upon the nature of the sample. See [link] for sample pretreatment methods.

Sample pretreatment methods for AAS.
Sample Examples Pretreatment method
Aqueous solutions Water, beverages, urine, blood Digestion if interference causing substituents are present
Suspensions Water, beverages, urine, blood Solid matter must either be removed by filtration, centrifugation or digestion, and then the methods for aqueous solutions can be followed
Organic liquids Fuels, oils Either direct measurement with AAS or diltion with organic material followed by measurement with AAS, standards must contain the analyte in the same form as the sample
Solids Foodstuffs, rocks Digestion followed by electrothermal AAS

Calibration curve

In order to determine the concentration of the analyte in the solution, calibration curves can be employed. Using standards, a plot of concentration versus absorbance can be created. Three common methods used to make calibration curves are the standard calibration technique, the bracketing technique, and the analyte addition technique.

Standard calibration technique

This technique is the both the simplest and the most commonly used. The concentration of the sample is found by comparing its absorbance or integrated absorbance to a curve of the concentration of the standards versus the absorbances or integrated absorbances of the standards. In order for this method to be applied the following conditions must be met:

  • Both the standards and the sample must have the same behavior when atomized. If they do not, the matrix of the standards should be altered to match that of the sample.
  • The error in measuring the absorbance must be smaller than that of the preparation of the standards.
  • The samples must be homogeneous.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

Get the best Physical methods in ch... course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Physical methods in chemistry and nano science' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask