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This is essentially your answer now as 2552 ppm. This is the amount of Fe in the solution of digested particles. This was made by diluting 0.5 mL of the original solution into 9.5 mL concentrated nitric acid, which is the same as diluting by a factor of 20. To calculate how much analyte was in the original batch that was synthesized we multiply the previous value by 20 again, i.e., [link] . This is the final amount of Fe concentration of the original batch when it was synthesized and made soluble in hexanes.

Calculating stoichiometric ratio

Moving from calculating the concentration of individual elements now we can concentrate on the calculation of stoichiometric ratios in the bi-metallic nanoparticles.

Consider the case when we have the iron and the copper elements in the nanoparticle. The amounts determined by ICP are:

  • Iron = 1.429 mg/L.
  • Copper = 1.837 mg/L.

We must account for the molecular weights of each element by dividing the ICP obtained value, by the molecular weight for that particular element. For iron this is calculated by [link] , and thus this is molar ratio of iron. On the other hand the ICP returns a value for copper that is given by [link] .

To determine the percentage iron we use [link] , which gives a percentage value of 42.15% Fe.

To work out the copper percentage we calculate this amount using [link] , which leads to an answer of 57.85% Cu.

In this way the percentage iron in the nanoparticle can be determined as function of the reagent concentration prior to the synthesis ( [link] ).

Determining concentration of nanoparticles in solution

The previous examples have shown how to calculate both the concentration of one analyte and the effective shared concentration of metals in the solution. These figures pertain to the concentration of elemental atoms present in solution. To use this to determine the concentration of nanoparticles we must first consider how many atoms that are being detected are in a nanoparticle. Let us consider that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are of 7 nm diameter. In a 7 nm particle we expect to find 20,000 atoms. However in this analysis we have only detected Fe atoms, so we must still account for the number of oxygen atoms that form the crystal lattice also.

For every 3 Fe atoms, there are 4 O atoms. But as iron is slightly larger than oxygen, it will make up for the fact there is one less Fe atom. This is an over simplification but at this time it serves the purpose to make the reader aware of the steps that are required to take when judging nanoparticles concentration. Let us consider that half of the nanoparticle size is attributed to iron atoms, and the other half of the size is attributed to oxygen atoms.

As there are 20,000 atoms total in a 7 nm particle, and then when considering the effect of the oxide state we will say that for every 10,000 atoms of Fe you will have a 7 nm particle. So now we must find out how many Fe atoms are present in the sample so we can divide by 10,000 to determine how many nanoparticles are present.

In the case from above, we found the solution when synthesized had a concentration 51,040 ppm Fe atoms in solution. To determine how how many atoms this equates to we will use the fact that 1 mole of material has the Avogadro number of atoms present, [link] .

1 mole of iron weighs 55.847 g. To determine how many moles we now have, we divide the values like this:

The number of atoms is found by multiplying this by Avogadro’s number (6.022x10 23 ):

For every 10,000 atoms we have a nanoparticle (NP) of 7 nm diameter, assuming all the particles are equivalent in size we can then divide the values, [link] . This is the concentration of nanoparticles per liter of solution as synthesized.

Combined surface area

One very interesting thing about nanotechnology that nanoparticles can be used for is their incredible ratio between the surface areas compared with the volume. As the particles get smaller and smaller the surface area becomes more prominent. And as much of the chemistry is done on surfaces, nanoparticles are good contenders for future use where high aspect ratios are required.

In the example above we considered the particles to be of 7 nm diameters. The surface area of such a particle is 1.539 x10 -16 m 2 . So the combined surface area of all the particles is found by multiplying each particle by their individual surface areas.

To put this into context, an American football field is approximately 5321 m 2 . So a liter of this nanoparticle solution would have the same surface area of approximately 1.5 football fields. That is allot of area in one liter of solution when you consider how much material it would take to line the football field with thin layer of metallic iron. Remember there is only about 51 g/L of iron in this solution!


  • (External Link)
  • A. Scheffer, C. Engelhard, M. Sperling, and W. Buscher, W. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. , 2008, 390 , 249.
  • H. Nakamuru, T. Shimizu, M. Uehara, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Maeda, Mater. Res. Soc., Symp. Proc. , 2007, 1056 , 11.
  • S. Sun and H. Zeng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 2002, 124 , 8204.
  • C. A. Crouse and A. R. Barron, J. Mater. Chem. , 2008, 18 , 4146.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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